The Pléiades instrument electronics include the MVP functions, the MSP (Module de Servitude de Proximité) and the MSI (Module de Servitude Instrument) dedicated to command / control. A lot of experience has been gathered by CNES in the Earth observing systems domain and many calibration procedures rely on this basic principle: if one gets an image of a well-known reference pattern, then one is able to identify the unknown parameters of the model, which links the input scene to the output image. . Pleiades is with this action a multi-mission concept and a partnership program. The PAN detection electronics is divided in 3 blocks: • 1 block which includes 2 MVPs and 1 MSP, • 1 block which includes 1 MVP (associated to the panchromatic detector in the center of the focal plane) and 1 MSP. The GEO-Information Services division will offer: • A one-stop shop for data from the SPOT-4 and -5 missions, from the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellites, from FormoSat-2, and from the Pleiades constellation. This agility coupled with particularly dynamic image acquisition programing make the Pleiades system very responsive to specific user requirements. Watch video Pleiades-1B satellite launch. 31) Alain Gleyzes, Lionel Perret, “Pleiades High resolution optical Earth Observation system status and future missions preparation in the frame of CXCI (Technology demonstration of very high resolution imaging) CNES program,” Proceedings of the 64th International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2013), Beijing, China, Sept. 23-27, 2013, paper: IAC-13-B1.2.2, 32) M. Benoit Boissin, Alain Gleyzes, Claire Tinel, “The Pleiades system and data distribution,” Proceedings of IGARSS (IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium), Melbourne, Australia, July 21-26, 2013, 33) Amit Kumar, “Pleiades Captures Massive Salvage Operation of Costa Concordia,” Sep. 19, 2013, URL:, 34) “The Costa Concordia salvage operation by satellite,” Sept. 18, 2013, URL:, 35) “Pleiades Constellation Complete,” Astrium, March 2013, URL:, 36) “Astrium: operational and commercial launch of the fully complete Pléiades constellation,” Astrium, March 19, 2013, URL:, 37) Drew Hopwood, “Pleiades-1A and -1B, SPOT-6 & -7 — Status of Astrium GEO-Information Services’ EO Satellite Constellation,” 12th Annual JACIE (Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation) Workshop, St. Louis, MO, USA, April 16-18, 2013, URL:, 38), 39) “Successful launch of Pleiades-1B,” CNES, Dec. 02,2012, URL:, 40) http://misconceive/PLEIADES/GP_actuality's, 41) Jean-Michel Achiever, “Pleiades: operational programming first results,” Proceedings of SpaceOps 2012, The 12th International Conference on Space Operations, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-15, 2012, URL:, 42) Laurent Lebègue, Daniel Greslou, Françoise deLussy, Sébastien Fourest, Gwendoline Blanchet, Christophe Latry, Sophie Lachérade, Jean-Marc Delvit, Philippe Kubik, Cécile Déchoz, Virginie Amberg, Florence Porez-Nadal, “Pleiades-HR Image Quality Commissioning,” Proceedings of the 22nd Congress of ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), Melbourne, Australia, Aug. 25 - Sept. 1, 2012, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B1, 2012, URL:, 43) Information provided by Benoit Boissin of CNES, Toulouse, France, 44) Peter B. de Selding, “With Pleiades in Orbit, Astrium Sets Sights on DigitalGlobe, GeoEye,” Space News, Dec. 19, 2011, URL:, 45) Drew Hopwood, “Post Launch Commissioning and Testing of Pléiades 1,” Astrium GEO-Information Services, April 2012, URL:, 46) URL:, 47) “First Pleiades 1A Imagery,” Astrium GEO-Information Services, Dec. 22, 2011, URL:, 48) “Astrium GEO Information Services LTDP Experience and Approach,” 2nd Long Term Data Preservation Workshop, ESA/ESRIN, May 30-31, 2011, URL:, 49) Catherine Gaudin-Delrieu, Jean-Luc Lamard, Philippe Cheroutre, Bruno Bailly, Pierre Dhuicq, Oliver Puig, “The High Resolution Optical Instruments for the Pleiades Earth Observation Satellites,” Proceedings of the 7th ICSO (International Conference on Space Optics) 2008, Toulouse, France, Oct. 14-17, 2008, 50) J.-L. Lamard, C. Gaudin-Delrieu, D. Valentini, C. Renard, T. Tournier, J.-M. Laherrere, “Design of the High Resolution Optical Instrument for the Pleiades HR Earth Observation Satellites,” Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Space Optics,” March 30 - Apr. Each Pléiades Neo satellite, based on the Airbus S950 optical platform, will add half a million km² of imagery per day to Airbus’ catalogue, and bring first rate performance: Higher agility for increased scene acquisition density over area of interest and stereo imaging, thanks to Control Momentum Gyroscopes and compact design 43). Table 4: Geo-Information Services of Astrium 48), HiRI of CNES with Thales Alenia Space (TAS-F) as the prime contractor for this instrument (formerly Alcatel Alenia Space). after lift-off at an altitude of 610 km. The transfer of charge along the CCD is made synchronous with the velocity of the scan image. Like its twin, orthorectified imagery is standard and several tasking options are available. Table 7: Overview of the SEDHI detection electronics. The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: ”Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors” (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002. The solar array size is minimized by using high-efficiency triple-junction cells. Belgium and France are already partners in the long-term SPOT program. - In return for financing 90% of the Pleiades program, the French government has reserved access to specific percentages of Pleiades’ output of 900 images per day once both satellites are in their 694 km orbit, spaced 180º apart. They all had children by gods (except Merope, who married Sisyphus). These new calibration methods will reduce many time-consuming activities because they often provide a closer access to the final performance without external data. Since 2006, more than 40 studies have been led by scientists and thematic experts from French and Belgium institutions, in close link with public end-users such as Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Ecology, French national cartographic institute, etc. Figure 32: Illustration of various acquisitions modes with HiRI due to the agility of the spacecraft (image credit: Spot Image) 59). IGN studies: department global coverage, MNT-Lidar assessment. For example, detectors non-uniformity can be measured in front of a integrating sphere during on-ground tests, and the camera best focus can be determined using a collimator on an optical facility, but both of these parameters are expected to vary slightly in orbit and therefore must be updated after launch. Such activities are performed in complementary and in synergy with Astrium GEO-Information Services marketing activities, aiming at developing a Pleiades market among commercial users and at setting up certified and qualified commercial services. The satellite agility is of importance with respect to 3D data extraction from the Pléiades image data. 21). Therefore, a preprocessing is applied on a large number of stars to interlace each elementary response to produce a well sampled one. A total of 69 geographic sites around the world have been selected; their sizes vary from 100 km2 up to 3500 km2. A very important operational criteria is the devivery of the data products for the commercial customers in record time. To perform calibrations on stars or moon images or using “ exotics ” guidance methods off the coast Giglio! Satellites de Télédétection • Astrium Geo- information Services ( formerly SPOT image ) serves the civilian clients is! 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