In Project example 2, this principle enabled practical decision-making around the choice of analytical strategies for different components of the data collected. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. 2 Agenda Pragmatism as a research paradigm in social research Three kinds of pragmatism Practice research vs. Action reserach Constructive knowledge & practical theory Documentation Goldkuhl G (2008) Practical inquiry as action research and beyond, in Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems, Galway Goldkuhl G (2008) What kind of pragmatism in As noted previously, both projects involved respondents with differing levels of knowledge, experience and control over the process being studied. The authors’ doctoral projects on non-government organizations are used as examples to examine how the application of these principles strengthen each stage of the research process from project design and data collection to data analysis, conclusions and dissemination. Keywords: pragmatism, mixed research, the reality cycle, the double-faced knowledge, the necessary bias principle 1. By identifying common themes and commonly used performance measurement and programme evaluation in case study NGOs, and then later collecting data on the enactment of associated organizational practices, the researchers were able to develop a comprehensive picture of these study phenomena and assess the emergent theory in terms of the success of its practical application. In both project examples, an important part of the analytical process involved the documentation of field-notes or emergent findings, which included new evidence collected through repeat interviews or updated documentation, as the case study NGOs enacted the practices that were under investigation. citly stated the paradigm used (pragmatism). Table 1 below provides a brief overview of the two doctoral projects. In Project example 2, additional practitioners’ views were needed to interrogate NGO decision-making processes in terms of their practical functioning. Likewise, the process of framing of research questions based on practical understanding of organizational decision-making processes (Project example 2) revealed the diversity of views between board members and staff in NGOs. Pragmatic inquiry recognizes that individuals within social settings (including organizations) can experience action and change differently, and this encourages them to be flexible in their investigative techniques (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005). L. 2014b. Instead, it accepts that there can be single or multiple realities that are open to empirical inquiry (Creswell and Plano Clark 2011). Qualitative research has been widely accepted in all disciplines for academic as well as non-academic reasons. As Project example 1 focuses on small NGOs, a different approach is being taken to share the findings directly with these organizations. Paradigm #4 Pragmatism • “To a pragmatist, the mandate of science is not to find truth or reality, the existence of which are perpetually in dispute, but to facilitate human problem- solving” (Powell, 2001, p. 884). Qualitative research has been widely accepted in all disciplines for academic as well as non-academic reasons. The emphasis on useful, practice-based knowledge is particularly relevant in shaping the scope of academic research agendas in applied fields such as international and community development. This article highlights three principles of pragmatism from the literature and demonstrates application of these at each step of the research process using examples from the authors’ qualitative doctoral projects. Five Common Paradigms . Pragmatism has provided an effective alternative to previously qualitative-only research. She holds Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in sociology and development studies. In essence, this investigation is driven by a pragmatic desire to evaluate the pragmatist paradigm in relation to the success of its practical application as a framework for research. By demonstrating the suitability of this approach for research on NGOs, this article contributes to the growing literature supporting pragmatism as a potential paradigm for organizational research (Elkjaer and Simpson, 2011; Farjoun et al., 2015; Lorino, 2018). Moreover, as detailed further below, the research agenda shifts from merely focusing on ‘what works’ to mapping the consequences, experiences or meanings of social action for different individuals in an organization. For Project example 2, this meant having a balance of NGO leaders and operating staff respondents as this research on decision-making processes required that perspectives of decision-makers were juxtaposed and interrogated by implementing staff – an example of the macro-micro linkages that pragmatism helps establish. It is this world view within which researchers work. The rise of pragmatic paradigm occurred side-by-side with the rise of the mixed-methods approach. We have used auto-narrative to unpack how pragmatism was enacted at each stage of the research to add clarity to the often-abstract discourse surrounding paradigms and epistemology. In social science research, Pragmatic Paradigm was proposed as a philosophical basis for mixed methods research, supporting a third option to qualitative and quantitative methods dichotomy. As discussed below, these principles have particular relevance to research on NGOs but also have a wider application in other organizations. The aim of this article is to evidence ways in which pragmatism is useful for researching organizational processes. Evidence-Based Social Work Theory and Practice: Historical and Reflective Perspective. A diversity of methods offered a framework to map, triangulate and sequence the research problem against diverse NGO contexts. According to pragmatism there cannot be one way to solve a problem but a mix of approach can better help solve a problem and find the truth. This feature is particularly relevant to NGOs as, often, organizational processes are not properly documented and, to a large extent, rely on the knowledge and interpretations of implementing staff. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Realities are multiple, constructed, and holistic. ORCID iDLeanne M Kelly As a new paradigm, pragmatism disrupts the assumptions of older approaches based on the philosophy of knowledge, while providing promising new directions for … This paper has picked out interpretivism and pragmatism as two possible and important research paradigms for qualitative research in information systems. Dewey suggested that all human experience involves some amount of interpretation – interpreting knowledge and beliefs leads to action and reflecting on actions leads to new ways of knowing and acting (Morgan, 2014a). Qualitative research paradigm was dominated by the constructivist approach to solve the problems. Similarly, the gurus of qualitative research, Denzin and Lincoln (2000), define paradigms as human constructions, which deal with first principles or ultimates indicating where the researcher is coming from so as to construct meaning embedded in data. Charles Sanders was the originator behind the pragmatic paradigm while William James was his colleague he defended the idea and promoted it later. The article focuses on three core methodological principles that underlie a pragmatic approach to inquiry: (1) an emphasis on actionable knowledge, (2) recognition of the interconnectedness between experience, knowing and acting and (3) inquiry as an experiential process. display: none !important; Similarly, in Project example 1, many respondents highlighted that they had never considered the worth of evaluation. The results and discussion section examines how the three selected principles can be incorporated throughout the course of research from design and data collection to data analysis, conclusions and dissemination. Pragmatism can be more suitable than other major philosophical approaches to probe this ‘inner world’ of organizational processes as first, it emphasizes that knowledge is based on experience; and second, it encourages the researchers to analyse organizational practices through experience as well as action. It has enabled us to frame organizational processes as social practices and arrive at a dynamic and multi-faceted understanding of practice. Its fluidity allowed for abductive, inductive and deductive reasoning, which supported inclusion of emerging ideas and data. Pragm… Morgan, D. L. (January 2007). In pragmatist research, this flexible and adaptive form of data collection and analysis is referred to as abduction. The design of a research study begins with the selection of a topic and a paradigm. Had the researchers adopted a more theory-testing methodology or one based purely on structured, close-ended methods, it would have been unlikely for the projects to contribute to validate ‘practical understandings’ (Patton, 2005: 153) of the study phenomena. 2009). 4. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. IN this chapter we analyze four paradigms that currently are competing, or have until recently com-peted, for acceptance as the paradigm of choice in informing and guiding inquiry, especially qualitative inquiry: positivism, postpositivism, critical theory under investigation, critical theory, constructivist and participatory paradigms, use interpretive perspectives of theory. Qualitative research has its own uniqueness and dynamism in philosophy, paradigm, ontology, epistemology and methodology. have benefited from the easy to understand presentation... cabinet medical boisseau: Great article.... Legg, Catherine and Hookway, Christopher, ” Pragmatism”. Besides critical research and sometimes positivism, qualitative research in information systems can be performed following a paradigm of pragmatism. The other significant progress that pragmatism made is the possibility of inter-subjectivity in social science research. This experiential process helps researchers with combining macro- and micro-level perspectives within an organization and encourages a more inclusive research process as different stakeholders are able to situate themselves and their actions within a larger context. These will be particularly effective for Project example 2, which has been working with NGO peak bodies and funders. Login failed. Abduction allows researchers to move from observations to theories, by reasoning at an intermediate level (Friedrichs and Kratochwil, 2009). The design of a research study begins with the selection of a topic and a paradigm. In addition, pragmatism guided our sampling strategies by helping us identify information rich respondents most likely to provide useful practice-based knowledge, as well as ensuring the sampling process uncovered a range of perspectives. The paradigm wars between these approaches often encouraged the application of rigid methodological frameworks and the temptation of creating ‘one size fits all’ epistemological solutions. The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the USA about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Participatory approaches in qualitative research are on the rise. Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. This site uses cookies. While we describe the epistemological, ontological and methodological underpinnings of a variety of paradigms, one need not identify with a paradigm when doing qualitative research. Introduction The quantitative and qualitative paradigms face one another in a long-lasting debate or what so-called "the paradigm war". They also shed light on the value of pragmatist inquiry in unpacking the tensions involved in NGO programme evaluation. It does not totally rely on interpretivist approach not on the positivist approach. This survey focused on practitioners’ experiences of NGO performance measurement processes and decision-making processes, enabling comparison with formal documentation, as well as the views of NGO leaders and boards. This paradigm is totally opposite to positivist paradigm and constructivism. Tags pragmatic paradigm pragmatism pragmatism in mixed method research, Subjectivism is a word that has many different meanings.  =  Realism, constructionism and pragmatism paradigms have been applied widely for qualitative research. However, because these systems were in their infancy, descriptions of these systems or reflection on what was working and what was not had not been formally documented. A pragmatist view was vital in ensuring the validity of our conclusions and in delivering on practical research outputs for the case study organizations who took part in our research projects. For instance, both projects found that many organizational practices had limited internal relevance although resources were being invested in these. Cordeiro and Kelly, 2019; Kelly, 2016, 2018, 2019b, 2020). When applied to pragmatist inquiry, Morgan (2014a) suggests that this view of practical, real-world inquiry encourages researchers to ask, ‘what difference would it make to act in one way rather than another?’ (p. 28). It is often associated with mixed-methods or Our dissemination strategies pragmatically centre on informing and engaging practitioners, where possible, in discussions on our findings. The benefit of pragmatism is that it creates room for the exploration of how individual experience, knowing and acting are shaped through social interaction. Paradigm gave birth to neopragmatism on our findings data collec­... have added a pragmatic paradigm researchers... And Master ’ s approach, there is a single scientific method could access truths regarding the world... 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