He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany containing secret military clauses. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged. About 2% of the Druze population are also scattered within other countries in the Middle East. The Talhuq family and 'Abd-al-Malik, who supplied the later Druze leadership, have the same record as the Tanukhs. Is this a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized sea creature? Most of them live in Syria and Lebanon.Some have emigrated to the United States and Canada.. Palestine and Palestinians are known since ancient history. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī (from Persian darzi, "seamster") who was an early preacher. [227] Israeli Druze citizens serve in the Israel Defense Forces. [126] The number of Druze parliament members usually exceeds their proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within several political parties. Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, most Druze do not identify as Muslims,[165][166][167] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam. [110][page needed], He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. A portrait of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ( Public Domain ). The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. The "'uqqal" are so called because the secrets of the Druze doctrine (wisdom books) are revealed to them on initiation. The Ma'ans chose for their abode the Chouf District in south-western Lebanon (southern Mount Lebanon Governorate), overlooking the maritime plain between Beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in Baaqlin, which is still a leading Druze village. This autonomy was maintained until World War I. One secret that slipped out in the 1970s is that they believe in reincarnation. In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Renunciation of all forms of former worship (specifically, invalid creeds) and false belief. 3. p.277, Barnay, Y. [49] The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims and today's more urbanized Christians. I rely on our Moula Al-Hakim the lonely God, the individual, the eternal, who is out of couples and numbers, (someone) the son of (someone) has approved recognition enjoined on himself and on his soul, in a healthy of his mind and his body, permissibility aversive is obedient and not forced, to repudiate from all creeds, articles and all religions and beliefs on the differences varieties, and he does not know something except obedience of almighty Moulana Al-Hakim, and obedience is worship and that it does not engage in worship anyone ever attended or wait, and that he had handed his soul and his body and his money and all he owns to almighty Maulana Al-Hakim. The most influential of al-ʻuqqāl become Ajawīd, recognized religious leaders, and from this group the spiritual leaders of the Druze are assigned. He also accused Damascus of being behind the 1977 assassination of his father, Kamal Jumblatt, expressing for the first time what many knew he privately suspected. [175][176], Since Druze either emerged from Islam and share certain beliefs with Islam, its position of whether it is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial among Muslim scholars. And by that time, because of earlier persecutions, their faith was closed to new followers and they opposed marriage outside of the Druze faith. The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. He saw minority demands as tantamount to treason. Druze reject polygamy, believe in reincarnation, and are not obliged to observe most of the religious rituals. Golan Heights: J 54%, E 29%, I 8%, G 4%, C 4%. Druze Woman Takes on a Male-dominated Society, Through a Lens Darkly . DRUZE.The title Druze (Arab.Durz ī; pl. The word Dogziyin ("Druzes") occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Jaffa, or Yafo in Hebrew, is a city port and southern suburb of Tel Aviv, located on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. [63] He came to Fatimid Egypt in 1014 or 1016[63] and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. The belief in reincarnation had first existed among Jewish mystics in the Ancient World, among whom differing explanations were given of the afterlife, although with a universal belief in an immortal soul. [76], In 1043, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges, and since that time proselytism has been prohibited awaiting al-Hakim's return at the Last Judgment to usher in a new Golden Age. [110][page needed] Other notable communities live in the Harim Mountains, the Damascus suburb of Jaramana, and on the southeast slopes of Mount Hermon. Combined with our earlier research showing the northeastern Turkish origins of Ashkenazic Jews , we can explain that genetic similarity via the shared origin of Ashkenazic Jews and Druze. The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. The oldest and most densely-populated Druze communities exist in Mount Lebanon and in the south of Syria around Jabal al-Druze (literally the "Mountain of the Druzes"). [57][59], Large communities of Druze also live outside the Middle East, in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America (mainly Venezuela,[60] Colombia and Brazil[dubious – discuss]), the United States, and West Africa. [50] As a result, the faith went underground, in hope of survival, as those captured were either forced to renounce their faith or be killed. [38] Christianity teaches evangelism, often through the establishment of missions, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic,[50] the name has been used to identify them, possibly by their historical opponents as a way to attach their community with ad-Darazi poor perception. The latter title has since been usurped by the Hawran region, which since the middle of the 19th century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power. [55] He also stated that "they loved the Jews". [71] Al-Hakim preferred Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad over him and al-Darazi was executed in 1018, leaving Hamza the sole leader of the new faith. [159] Mate is made by steeping dried leaves of the South American plant yerba mate in hot water and is served with a metal straw (بمبيجة bambīja or مصاصة maṣṣāṣah) from a gourd (فنجان finjān or قَرْعَة‎ qarʻah). There are seven duties that all Druze are required to observe: recognition of al-Hakim and strict adherence to monotheism; negation of all non-Druze tenets; rejection of Satan and unbelief; acceptance of God’s acts; submission to God for good or ill; truthfulness; and mutual solidarity and help between fellow Druze. Previous research has always placed the origins of the Druze in the Near East region. [53], The Tanukhs must have left Arabia as early as the second or third century AD. One small DNA study has shown that Israeli Druze are remarkable for the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L (though some Afshar village[dubious – discuss] and the Raqqa Syrians have even more), which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. A large Syrian Druze community historically lived in the Golan Heights, but following wars with Israel in 1967 and 1973, many of these Druze fled to other parts of Syria; most of those who remained live in a handful of villages in the disputed zone, while only a few live in the narrow remnant of Quneitra Governorate that is still under effective Syrian control. [47][48] The Unitarian Druze movement, which existed in the Fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged al-Zahir as the caliph, but followed Hamzah as its Imam. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in Constantinople.) [171][172] The persecution of the Druze included massacres, demolishing Druze prayer houses and holy places and forced conversion to Islam. For example, Muhammad is considered a natiq, Ali is considered an asas, but both are considered prophets. Communities Uncovered: The Secretive Druze Religion - YouTube [72], In an attempt to gain the support of al-Hakim, al-Darazi started preaching that al-Hakim and his ancestors were the incarnation of God. • The second element is defined as "guardianship of brothers" (H ifz al-Ikhw ān). [101] Following the recommendations of the powers, the Ottoman Porte granted Lebanon local autonomy, guaranteed by the powers, under a Christian governor. We’ve compiled a comprehensive list of how bestto experience Druze food, culture, art and hospitality. This is done in order to keep the religion from those who are not yet prepared to accept the teachings and therefore could misunderstand it, as well as to protect the community when it is in danger. [73] Al-Darazi wrote a book laying out this doctrine. Was Moloch really Ba’al, the Ancient God Who Demanded Child Sacrifice? Shaykh al-Aql and the Druze of Mount Lebanon. [110][page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria". The Druze are an Arabic-speaking minority who live throughout the Middle East. Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? In 1017, Hamza officially revealed the Druze faith and began to preach the Unitarian doctrine. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. Within this category, initiates are distinguished from novices. ;] -- Examines the theology of the Druze, an offshoot of the Shiite Moslems, and the most secret sect of Islam. [110][page needed], During the four years of Adib Shishakli's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) (on 25 August 1952: Adib al-Shishakli created the Arab Liberation Movement (ALM), a progressive party with pan-Arabist and socialist views),[111] the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian government. The Maronite-Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement,[citation needed] directed against the Druze, Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks. The souls of those who took the vows during the call are believed to be continuously reincarnating in successive generations of Druze until the return of al-Hakim to proclaim a second Divine call and establish a Golden Age of justice and peace for all. Under Fakhr-al-Dīn II (Fakhreddin II), the Druze dominion increased until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Safad in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Din's castle at Tadmur (Palmyra), the ancient capital of Zenobia. It appeared in the Levant during the reign of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, (996 - 1021). Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. socially. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt (1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Levant, and later to help them safeguard the Lebanese coast against Crusader retaliation by sea. The number 5 contains an unstated significance within the Druze faith, it's believed in this area that great prophets come in groups of five. Recognition of prophets in the Druze religion is divided into three sort-of subcategories, the prophet themselves (natiq), their disciples (asas), and witnesses to their message (hujjah). They are found in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[155]. The leading "Atrash" family also can trace its background to the Kurdish tribe, the Hartush/Atrush, found in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey today. Many of the Golani Druze maintain support or allegiance to Syria. Those who violate this rule can be killed or excommunicated. The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin. and in the Islam he is considered a prophet of God. The head is the Jabal Druze, if I crush the head the serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132). 1982. And as the Ashkenazic Jews moved northward into the Khazarian Empire , the Druze moved southwards to Palestine – only for both people to reunite hundreds of years later. But thanks to our new research that mystery may now have been solved, with the use of a genetic GPS system – that works in a similar way to the sat nav in your car. The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe. And by zooming in on the area, our genetic GPS traced most Druze to the region that overlaps northeast Turkey, southwest Armenia and northern Iraq. [210], Contact between Christian communities (members of the Maronites, Eastern Orthodox, Melkite, and other churches) and the Unitarian Druze led to the presence of mixed villages and towns in Mount Lebanon, Jabal al-Druze,[211] the Galilee region, and Mount Carmel. Share in WhatsApp. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. [85], In the early period of the Crusader era, the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs and the Arslans. The Druze were no different. Having consolidated his conquests in Syria (1831–1838), Ibrahim Pasha, son of the viceroy of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, made the fatal mistake of trying to disarm the Christians and Druzes of the Lebanon and to draft the latter into his army. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in 'soul eternity' and reincarnation". [79] These sources assert that al-Hakim rejected al-Darazi's claims of divinity,[52][80][81][page needed] and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali. The civil war was not therefore a religious war,[citation needed] except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian. (See the book of Arthur Koestler “The Thirteenth Tribe”). [142][143][200][201][202] Within Islam, however, such a concept of theophany is a denial of monotheism. [56], Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. Genetic evidence also suggests that over the years non-Druze tribes and individuals have contributed and enriched the Druze gene pool. And although by that time, neither one recalled their common roots, both retained the evidence in their genes. Later, under the Ottoman, they were severely attacked at Saoufar in the 1585 Ottoman expedition, after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. This is the Ancient Origins team, and here is our mission: “To inspire open-minded learning about our past for the betterment of our future through the sharing of research, education, and knowledge”. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. The khalwat may be known as majlis in local languages. The Druzite community in Lebanon played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon,[117] and even though they are a minority they play an important role in the Lebanese political scene. He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: The head is the Jebel al-Druze, the stomach Homs, and the tail Aleppo. The civil war of 1860 cost the Christians some ten thousand lives in Damascus, Zahlé, Deir al-Qamar, Hasbaya, and other towns of Lebanon. In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control. [177][178][179] Ibn Taymiyya a prominent Muslim scholar muhaddith, dismissed the Druze as non-Muslims,[180] and his fatwa cited that Druzes: "Are not at the level of ′Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book) nor mushrikin (polytheists). The new study could reshape history, since it openly challenges the “out of Africa theory.”. Also, the Druze formed an alliance with Britain and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites. [231] Israeli Druze do not consider themselves Muslim, and see their faith as separate and independence religion. Lebanon: J 31%, E 22%, K 21%, R 14%, L 10%. [228] The Jewish-Druze partnership was often referred as a "a covenant of blood" (Hebrew: ברית דמים, brit damim) in recognition of the common military yoke carried by the two peoples for the security of the country. Deciphering Who They Are", "Calls for aid to Syria's Druze after al Qaeda kills 20", "Syria: ISIS Imposes 'Sharia' on Idlib's Druze", "Assessing Druze identity and strategies for preserving Druze heritage in North America", "Localities and Population, by District, Sub-District, Religion and Population Group", "About the Faith of the Mo'wa'he'doon Druze by Moustafa F. 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Photo Source: Public Domain, This article, originally titled ‘ How we solved the 1,000-year-old mystery of the Druze people’s origin – with a genetic sat nav ’ by Eran Elhaik was published on The Conversation and has been republished under a Creative Commons license. Thoth’s Enigmatic Emerald Tablets May Provide the Answer, White Skin Developed in Europe Only As Recently as 8,000 Years Ago Say Anthropologists, The Pyramid Complex and the Hopi: Creation Myth Sheds Light on Building Plan, The Knights of Blanik Mountain Are Ready to Face the Darkest Hour. By that time, however, the faith had already spread outside Egypt and become accepted among several Levantine groups. Among living beings, man alone possesses the power to comprehend, infer, and think in a sophisticated manner. [citation needed], The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica states that the Druzes are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood". i. The rest can show off their hair, drink and eat pork as much as they want. The Druze believe in the unity of God, and are often known as the "People of Monotheism" or simply "Monotheists". Those are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of the ʻuqqāl. In August 2001, Maronite Catholic Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir toured the predominantly Druze Chouf region of Mount Lebanon and visited Mukhtara, the ancestral stronghold of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt. [69] He arrived in Cairo in 1015, or 1017, after which he joined the newly-emerged Druze movement.[70]. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. The Shihab leadership continued until the middle of the 19th century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of Amir Bashir Shihab II (1788–1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the most powerful feudal lord Lebanon produced. Most people are familiar with the story of Atlantis, the legendary sunken city as described by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. [citation needed], The call summoned people to a true unitarian belief that removed all attributes (wise, just, outside, inside, etc.) Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an (the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. Israel is the biggest hoax in history. As powerful warriors serving the Muslim rulers of Damascus against the Crusades, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the crusaders in the seaport of Beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. [86][page needed], Ibn Taymiyyah believed that Druze have a high level of infidelity, besides being apostates. [61], The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.[62]. The Druzes do not recognize any religious hierarchy. Druze Secrets Revealed And Hannah Montana Reveals Her Secret ENJOY WITH GREAT DEALS AND LOW PRICES PRODUCTS HERE. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. A total of 311 Israeli Druze were sampled: 37 from the Golan Heights, 183 from the Galilee, and 35 from Mount Carmel, as well as 27 Druze immigrants from Syria and 29 from Lebanon. This culminated in the civil war of 1860. [38] The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. The Megalithic Mystery of the Greek Dragon Houses, New Evidence Suggests Early Humans HIBERNATED In Caves, Like Bears, Raised Celtic Settlement May Be Aftermath of Boudica’s Rebellion, Egyptian Hippos: Ancient Symbol of Protection, Rebirth And Hunting, Revealing The Hellenistic Origins Of Jaffa, The Holiest Port, Grasshopper Diet Caused Lethal Constipation 1,000 Years Ago, 7.2 million-Year-Old Pre-Human Fossil Suggests Mankind Arose in Europe NOT Africa, Sky Burial: Tibet’s Ancient Tradition for Honoring the Dead, Ancient Anomalous Human Skeletons: Humanity Could be Much Older Than We Think, Where are Ashkenazi Jews from? This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. [51], Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf" who is narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons. Until now. 2010). [71], The call was suspended briefly between 19 May 1018 and 9 May 1019 during the apostasy of al-Darazi and again between 1021 and 1026 during a period of persecution by Ali az-Zahir for those who had sworn the oath to accept the call. Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. Their gratitude to their hosts was formulated into their basic doctrine that they were "God's people of choise" and that the land of their hosts belonged to them-the guests! Druze are not considered Muslims by those belonging to orthodox Islamic schools of thought. It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come. Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs, biscuits, and chips. After the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. [46] Most recently, Druze were targeted by Islamic extremists. [86][page needed], The conquest of Syria by the Muslim Arabs in the middle of the seventh century introduced into the land two political factions later called the Qaysites and the Yemenites. The Druze (/druːz/;[18] Arabic: درزي‎ darzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz; Hebrew: דְּרוּזִי‎ drūzī plural .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}דְּרוּזִים‎, druzim) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group[19] originating in Western Asia who self-identify as The People of Monotheism (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn). [128][page needed], Druze Sacred texts include the Quran and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). Each major prophet had seven minor prophets, and each minor prophet had twelve disciples. The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym in Southern Lebanon, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat) which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates where they had been Christianized prior to their migration into the Lebanon. Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group, Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes, Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function of Reincarnation Among Druze in Israel", Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan, The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana, Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture - Page 94 by Mohamed Taher, Asian and African Studies: Vol. The cohesiveness and frequent inter-community social interaction however makes it in sort that that most Druzes have an idea about their broad ethical requirements and have some sense of what their theology consists of (albeit often flawed). By Wisdom, might, and from this group the spiritual leaders of the Druze are of stock... Targeted by Islamic extremists them to be surprised at some of the country Asia ’ Antiquities! 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