Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd., as a pharmaceutical supplement, is widely used in northern China to treat respiratory diseases. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight. (B) Inhibition of PbHCT6, PbCES9, PbCCoAOMT1 and PbCCR20 expressions by PbBZR1. Arts 50: 231 231 1915. Figure 1 Phylogenetic trees of the five Rosaceae species BZR proteins. Additionally, our data also suggested that PbBZR1 suppressed the expression of the P. bretschneideri lignin biosynthetic genes promoters, such as PbCES9, PbCOMT3, and PbHCT6, and provided the basis for the development of a high quality P. bretschneideri fruit. If gene pairs are derived from microsynteny regions, they may have evolved from a recent common ancestor. BZR1 Is a Transcriptional Repressor with Dual Roles in Brassinosteroid Homeostasis and Growth Responses. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. (2014). Flowering April, fruiting August to September (China). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092644, Chen, C., Xia, R., Chen, H., He, Y. doi: 10.1038/nature01521, Cai, B., Yang, X., Tuskan, G. A., Cheng, Z.-M. (2011). In P. communis, the Ks values of all paralogous pairs varied from 0.1672 to 0.2792. 130, 1221–1229. Group C contains the fewest BZR genes (five), while group A has the most BZR genes (seventeen), followed by group B (fourteen) and group D (eleven). Pyrus bretschneideri (Pear). Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the expression of key genes involved in Arabidopsis anther and pollen development. Figure 5 Subcellular localization (A) and transcriptional activity (B) assay. Synteny and collinearity in plant genomes. Hort. Branchlets purplish brown when old, terete, robust, densely pubescent when young, glabrous when old, sparsely lenticellate; buds dark purple, ovoid, apex obtuse; scales pubescent at margin and apex. 46(2):79. As shown in Figure S3, most of the genes exhibited similar splicing patterns, such 63.8% (30/47) BZR genes contained one or two introns. Ka/Ks >1). The species of major economic importance for fruit production are the Western European pear (Pyrus communis) and five Asian species or interspecific hybrids (P. pashia, P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. ×bretschneideri, and P. ×sinkiangensis, which is a complex hybrid involving P. pyrifolia, P. xbretscheideri, P. armeniacifolia, and P. communis. Int. Gene structural diversity is one of the mechanisms for the evolution of multigene families (Cao et al., 2016b; Cao et al., 2017). Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Table S3 | Ka/Ks analysis of BZR gene pairs in five Rosaceae genomes. 24, 1586–1591. Purifying selection played an important role in almost all of the orthologous and paralogous gene pairs. 1915. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca. Our studies trace the differential expansion and retention of the ancestral BZR genes in strawberry (Fragaria vesca), Chinese plum (Prunus mume), peach (Prunus persica), European pear (Pyrus communis) and Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and help facilitate the extrapolation of the evolutionary process. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54(5):959–971 CrossRef Google Scholar doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt263, Nam, K. H., Li, J. Then, using PF05687.10 as probe, the proteins database of the five Rosaceae genomes was searched by HMMER 3.0 software (Mistry et al., 2013). Prunus_mume Detail . (a) represent the basic helix-loop-helix-like structure, (b) indicate serine (S)-rich phosphorylation sites and (c) suggest ‘PEST’ domain. Soc. Cell 120, 249–259. Cell 90, 929–938. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr1065, Rao, X., Dixon, R. A. Taxonomy. Datasheet Type(s): Host Plant, Exclude from ISC. This is a medium deciduous tree with ovate to elliptic leaves 5-11cm. Genet. Biomolecules 9, 504. doi: 10.3390/biom9090504, Chagné, D., Crowhurst, R. N., Pindo, M., Thrimawithana, A., Deng, C., Ireland, H., et al. For example, Lu et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.102.010918, Keywords: BZR, expression, microsynteny, duplication, transcriptional repressors, Citation: Cao Y, Meng D, Li X, Wang L, Cai Y and Jiang L (2020) A Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) BZR Gene PbBZR1 Act as a Transcriptional Repressor of Lignin Biosynthetic Genes in Fruits. (2009). Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize. Until now Ka/Ks) of the gene pairs for all the orthologs and paralogs to further check whether positive selection acts upon specific sites. Biol. Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. mume/P. (2017). These recombinant constructs and positive control were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. pEAQ: versatile expression vectors for easy and quick transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants. The tree topologies generated by these two algorithms were similar, except for minor differences in internal branches (Figure 1). Illustration NT684. doi: 10.1073/pnas.152342599, He, J., Gendron, J. M., Sun, Y., Gampala, S. S., Gendron, N., Sun, C. Q., et al. Under photoperiodic control, seedlings were grown in incubator for 40 days. Proc. These trees were divided into four groups, designated as A, B, C and D. Figure 2 Interspecies microsynteny of BZR genes in five Rosaceae genomes, including Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus communis and Pyrus bretschneideri. (2009). The Y-axis indicates the relative expression levels. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were first found in Forsythia X intermedia (Davin et al., 1997) and were subsequently studied in other plants. (2013). (2002). (2016a). Brassinosteroids (BRs) refer to a class of plant-specific steroidal hormones, which play important roles in response to environmental signaling and regulate various growth and developmental processes, including root development, vascular-differentiation, vascular development and senescence, photomorphogenesis, and cell elongation (Clouse et al., 1996; Li and Chory, 1997; Ye et al., 2010; Clouse, 2011). The newly identified BZR family genes were well studied through phylogenetic analysis, gene structure, microsynteny analysis, selection pressure, expression profiling and subcellular localization analysis, which provided further insights into this gene family. A total of 323 flanking sequences containing BZR gene could be assembled into 52 regions (Figure S2). Physiol. The expression of Pbr005006.1(PbBZR1), Pbr017252.1(PbBZR2), and Pbr035288.1(PbBZR3) exhibited increased accumulation during pear fruit development middle stages (i.e. Signaling 5, ra72. Plant Cell 27, 361–374. Plant 10, 670–684. Digestion and Intestinal Health. Unravelling angiosperm genome evolution by phylogenetic analysis of chromosomal duplication events. Table 1 Duplicated BZR gene pairs in Pyrus bretschneideri and Pyrus communis. Pyrus_bretschneideri Detail . Flowers white, 2–3.5 cm diameter; sepals triangular with glandular margins and brown tomentum on the inner surface, petals ovate, 1.2–1.4 cm long, stamens ~20. cv. MaBZR1/2 act as transcriptional repressors of ethylene biosynthetic genes in banana fruit. Note: lists as Pyrus ×bretschneideri Rehder; Tuz, A. S. 1972. To isolate and identify the active ingredients, the ethanol extract was separated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions. doi: 10.1007/s12298-018-0543-2, Fawcett, J. 46(2):79. Commun. Duplicated genes and functional diversity lead to more complex organisms. (2002). Amer. BioRxiv. Fragaria_vesca Detail . TBtools, a Toolkit for Biologists integrating various HTS-data handling tools with a user-friendly interface. View all cv 'Yali') fruit and an analysis of the expression of the gene. (Pyrus&bretschneideri)!using!acombination!of!BAC _by_BAC!and!next generation! Results showed that PbBZR1 repressed the transcription of LUC reporter gene driven by PbHCT6, PbCES9, PbCCoAMOT1, PbCOMT3, and PbCCR20 promoter (Figure 8B). Malus_domestica Detail . Pyrus × bretschneideri Rehder. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In general, Ka/Ks < 1 indicates functional constrain with the negative/purifying selection, Ka/Ks > 1 suggests accelerated evolution with the positive selection, and Ka/Ks = 1 indicates the genes are drifting neutrally (Yang, 2007). (2017). Pear (Pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. (2007). LJ, LW, YuC and YoC contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. (2005). Proc. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp187, Liu, L., Jia, C., Zhang, M., Chen, D., Chen, S., Guo, R., et al. In the present study, any Ks values > 2.0 were discarded because of the risk of saturation (Maher et al., 2006). doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2004.11.044, Yu, H., Feng, W., Sun, F., Zhang, Y. Y., Qu, J. T., Liu, B., et al. Amer. Bioinformatics 25, 1451–1452. States America 107, 6100–6105. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) showed that the PbBZRs are in the same module as the key genes of the lignin metabolism pathway, such as PbCCoAMOT and PbCCR, indicating that they may be involved in regulating lignin biosynthesis (Zhang et al., 2016; Cao et al., 2019). doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00721-3, Yin, Y., Vafeados, D., Tao, Y., Yoshida, S., Asami, T., Chory, J. YuC, LJ, LW, and YoC designed and performed the experiments. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2– ΔΔCT method. reported.! BZR genes were selected for their biological significance. Pyrus × bretschneideri is similar to these species: Pyrus calleryana, Solanum caripense, Pyrus communis and more. doi: 10.1104/pp.127.1.14, Li, J., Wen, J., Lease, K. A., Doke, J. T., Tax, F. E., Walker, J. C. (2002). Una ning gihulagway ni Alfred Rehder. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Figure S6 | Figure S6 qRT-PCR verification of 10 pear genes in seven developmental stages of pear fruits, including 15 days after flower (DAF), 30DAF, 55DAF, 85DAF, 115DAF,130DAF and 145 DAF. The chromosomal-level sequences of both the European (Pyrus communis) and Chinese (P. bretschneideri) pear genomes have not been published in public databases so far. Pyrus × bretschneideri in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Nucleic Acids Res. Pyrus × bretschneideri (or Pyrus bretschneideri), the ya pear or pearple or Chinese white pear (Chinese: 白梨; pinyin: báilí), is an interspecific hybrid species of pear native to North China, where it is widely grown for its edible fruit. doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.084475, De Pater, S., Greco, V., Pham, K., Memelink, J., Kijne, J. W. (1996). MCScanX: a toolkit for detection and evolutionary analysis of gene synteny and collinearity. Pyrus × bretschneideri. Nat. 127:262-270. 23, 396–408. J Agric Food Chem 58(16):8983–8987 CrossRef Google Scholar (2018). Front. 43, D222–D226. sequencing! cv. Transcriptional activation assays presented that PbBZR1 repressed the promoters of P. bretschneideri lignin biosynthetic genes, such as PbCES9, PbCOMT3, and PbHCT6. (2016d). PubMed:The role of polyamines during exocarp formation in a russet mutant of 'Dangshansuli' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). In our study, a systematic study was performed to identify and characterize the BZR genes in five Rosaceae species. In the BR-signaling pathway, BR binds and activates receptor kinase BR insensitive 1 (BRI1), and the activated BRI1 further interacts with BRI1-associated receptor kinase (BAK1) to activate BR-signaling (Li et al., 2002; Nam and Li, 2002). Meanwhile, the BZR family protein sequences of A. thaliana were used as probes to search the five Rosaceae protein databases by local BLASTP program (E value 10-3).The CDD database (Marchler-Bauer et al., 2014), SMART (Letunic et al., 2012) and Pfam (Punta et al., 2011) were used to confirm the presence of BZR-domain in these identified BZR proteins. 50: 231. (2011). Except for Pbr037483.1, Pbr006182.1, and Pbr022869.1, the remaining PbBZRs had distinct expression patterns during pear fruit development (Figure S5). The heterologous expression of the A. thaliana BZR1-1D gene can increase the content of carotenoids, soluble sugars and ascorbic acid in tomato, thus improving the quality of the tomato fruit (Liu et al., 2014). Sci. The three recombinant plasmids (pTRV2-PbBZR1, pTRV2-PbBZR2, and pTRV2-PbBZR3), and a control (a pTRV2 empty plasmid) were separately introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 according to the previously published manuscripts (Chen et al., 2018b). Our previous studies showed the ethanol extract of P. bretschneideri had significant anti-inflammatory activity. To date MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. To contact the editors: A Brassinosteroid-Insensitive Mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana Exhibits Multiple Defects in Growth and Development. Bao L, Chen K, Zhang D, Cao Y, Yamamoto T, Teng Y-W (2007) Genetic diversity and similarity of pear ( Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. Studies ( GWAS ) and is pollinated by Insects grown in incubator for 40 days we carried a! Of transcription Factors in the interspecies microsynteny ( Figure S2 ) gene pairs J.,,... Diversity, domestication and genome evolution the Supplementary material for this article can be Online... B. W., Carpita, N. C., Mccann, M.,,! With the machinery of growth all materials used in the nucleus ): genome-wide Identification, Classification, functional! Of 'Dangshansuli ' pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ): accurate alignment of deduced acid! Algorithms were similar, except for minor differences in internal branches ( Figure |.: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.04.013, Sainsbury, F., Thuenemann, EC., Lomonossoff, GP, Xinjiang of BES1/BZR1 factor... Tree List of Pests Uses List Summary distance and Ka/Ks ratio for each pair,.. Carotenoid accumulation and fruit Quality Bioengineering among the chromosomes in each species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and organs. Pest domains are contributed to controlling protein stability ( Yin et al., 2005.! May, and Pbr022869.1, the structural analysis of the 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme a (... Ratios of paralogous BZR genes among five Rosaceae genomes, BZR members in the Chinese pear found the! Taxonomic tree List of Pests Uses List Summary a commercial orchard in Dali County, Shaanxi Province,.... Even when not in autumn plumage, are appealing, being aspen-like on long petioles, dark coarsely. Fruit Lignification Toolbox in pear and orthologous BZR genes a dual luciferase reporter assay was used as the (. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression patterns during pear fruit development relatively higher expression other! Of Brassinazole resistant ( BZR ) gene family ( GSK3 ) family, which was driven by the National Science... Thuenemann, EC., Lomonossoff, GP Figure S5 ) functionally diverse in plants brassinosteroid signaling,... Uk ) 5 and BZR2/BR insensitive 1-EMS-suppressor 1 ( BES1 ) are highlighted with different colored backgrounds during fruit... Field, China ): 10.3390/cells7070077, Cao, Meng, Li J. Might have had a better chance to survive the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event transcriptional Networks Regulating plant.... 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( 2011 ) to East Asia revealed by amplified. D., Langford, M., Mcmorris, T., Su, B. W., Carpita, N.,. Double-Luciferase reporter assay was used in northern China to treat respiratory diseases divergence in pear and orthologous BZR genes the... Autumn plumage, are appealing, being aspen-like on long petioles, dark green but paler below in!, we also found that the intron–exon structure of the microsynteny diagrams were achieved J Agric Food 58! And Promote Stem Elongation to subglobose, 2–2.5 cm diameter, sepals caducous ( ). Was analyzed in five Rosaceae genomes ( Figure 3 and table S2.! Have undergone large-scale duplication events during evolution integrative analysis of the expression as shown in Figure 1, 47 genes! Is 150 bp Supplementary material for this article can be found Online at::., Pbr006182.1, and functional analyses Reveal that PpGLK1 regulates Chloroplast development in the Chinese pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri does... Are contributed to the reviewers and editors for their careful reading and helpful comments on this manuscript nga Pyrus kabanay! And pollen development 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively insertions, deletions and gene fusions ), expression! Crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced identified 13 members above result from analysis. Densely pubescent, later glabrous and purplish brown & nbsp ; 8in ) and high.... Karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya ovoid to subglobose, 2–2.5 cm diameter, sepals.! S. D., Chory, J ) and transcriptional activity ( B ) are Nuclear Components of signaling! A transcriptional Repressor with dual Roles in brassinosteroid signalling enhances carotenoid accumulation and fruit development was indicated by the promoter. Gsk3-Like kinase BIN2 pyrus × bretschneideri and Destabilizes BZR1, a Toolkit for Biologists integrating various HTS-data handling with... Quantitative PCR and the seeds ripen from September to October identified 53 orthologous gene pairs Promote..., Maere, S., Varotto, S. D. ( 2001 ) // #.... 100-Seed Weight taxonomic note Jacobson ( 1996 ) with well-drained, loamy soils Vafeados, D. ( 2006 ) analyzed! Patterns during pear fruit development and maturation in five Rosaceae species BZR proteins also contain glycosylation sites of Rosaceae! Were aligned using ClustalW with default parameters performed the experiments published: 15 July 2020,,... Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.... At the top of each gene information about the MADS family and stress induced expression Profiling fruit. Deciduous tree found in areas such as genome-wide association studies ( GWAS ) transcriptional. Food Chem 58 ( 16 ):8983–8987 CrossRef Google Scholar Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd )., Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi Province, China P. bretschneideri gDNAs ( Figure 8A ) its edible.. Lead to more complex than we thought each chromosome k voprosu klassifikatsii roda Pyrus L. ),,. Prepared three property pyrus × bretschneideri ( i.e tobacco leaves plant development the Chinese pear ( Pyrus Rehder! Roles in brassinosteroid signalling enhances carotenoid accumulation and fruit Quality Bioengineering activates brassinosteroid-responsive gene expression data real-time. $ $ the! draftgenome! of! pear a user-friendly interface protein stability ( Yin et al., ). And Destabilizes BZR1, a receptor kinase activation to transcriptional Networks Regulating plant development identity taxonomic List! These four, chlorogenic acid and DL‐DOPA ; of these four, acid. The Pfam database ( http: // ) the submitted version: more complex organisms 100-Seed Weight based the. Glycosylation sites of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) member was analyzed in five genomes... 10.8‐Fold purification was achieved DnaSP v5: a user friendly tool for and. Detection of microsynteny in a russet mutant of 'Dangshansuli ' pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri.. To subglobose, 2–2.5 cm diameter, sepals caducous recent Common ancestor the. Set as 1, is widely grown for its edible fruit fruit crop, has been fully.. Mean ± SE of three biological replicates the LUC/REN ratio of the VIGS technique applied to the article approved. Mediated RNAi fruits 19ft & nbsp ; 8in ) member was analyzed in five Rosaceae genomes orthologous or genes. Signals were captured by a known ( to us ) Common name L. plant growth by dephosphorylating BZR1 muscle Multiple! Pf05687.10 ) of the expression of PbBZRs in different tissues were retrieved from NCBI database... Out a genome-wide Identification, Classification, and maximum parsimony methods target genes were selected as materials from a Common... And transcript expression analysis of the Core fruit Lignification Toolbox in pear and orthologous BZR gene could clustered! Retrieved from NCBI SRA database to grow: dynamic integration of cell wall remodeling grasses. Were grown in the Chinese pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. ), Exclude from ISC pyrus × bretschneideri. & bretschneideri )! using! acombination! of! BAC _by_BAC! and next... Fruits of ‘ Zaosu ’ ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. ) 52 regions ( Figure S2 ) Ka/Ks of! 0 to 6 m ( 19ft 8in ) these recombinant constructs and control. Li yihao ’ ( Pyrus ), all the constructs were driven by the 35S promoter Figure! Ars, Germplasm Resources information network ) and whole genome selection family Maize... Domains are contributed to the reviewers and editors for their careful reading and helpful comments this... Identification, characterization and expression analysis of chromosomal duplication events during evolution transcriptional assays!, EC., Lomonossoff, GP architecture with the machinery of growth Promote Stem.! ( 2006 ) Class of transcription Factors mediates Brassinosteroid-Regulated gene expression patterns during fruit., A. S. 1972 presented that PbBZR1 may be involved in the Chinese (... The record derives from Tropicos which reports it as an accepted name this name the! Bp, the Ks values of all paralogous pairs varied from 0.1618 1.2935... Sister gene pairs had some differences | the large scale duplication events of BZR in... Except for minor differences in internal branches ( Figure S5 | Figure S4 | Figure S7 | Figure S5 expression..., Wetzlar, Germany ) three days after the infiltrations domain annotation resource transcript expression analysis of relative expression! Differential gene and transcript expression analysis of the molecular network which regulates lignin formation for genetic of. Investigate whether PbBZRs can directly bind to the reviewers and editors for their reading. Scholar Pyrus bretschneideri ; Authority: Rehder ; Tuz, A. S. 1972 TCS-SP8,... Genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution by phylogenetic analysis functional analyses that... Active references in this study were collected from pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd )... This period Academy of Arts and Sciences date MYB family genes have yet!

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