Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species); some species with 3 rows on the tail. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Paulin (Ref. Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. 58418. 9. 94100). Spinous dorsal fin present. 7463). Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. Mouth protrusible. Scientific general reviews of the family are provided by Keenleyside (1991) and Barlow (2000). Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species); some species with 3 rows on the tail. Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Formerly known as Chandidae. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 7-19. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Most Neotropical Cichlidae are moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and breed pairwise. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Premaxillae not protractile. Nasal bones paired. Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. A lateral line is present with about 50scales along its length. Snout not very elongated. Some caninelike teeth in mouth. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Maximum length 70 cm, attained in Cepola rubescens. Vomer and palatine toothless. 94102). Pectoral fins very small. Bathydraconidae - (Antarctic dragonfishes) Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. Bathyclupeidae - (Deep-sea scalyfins) Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Deeply forked caudal fin. Among Neotropical taxa, lengths range from about 25-30 mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 1 meter in Cichla temensis. Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). The following information (Ref. 94100). Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) Cheilodactylidae - (Morwongs) Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. Juveniles enter fresh water in spring and spend the rest of their lives there. Small gill opening on upper side of head. Family Cheimarrhichthyidae is a monotypic family consisting of Cheimarrichthys fosteri which is found in fast-flowing rivers thoughout coastal New Zealand. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. On the whole it is not satisfactory to have one-third of the Neotropical cichlid fauna without a generic name, illustrating a real problem with the more formalized procedure of naming species, but it could also signify a safeguarding against doubtful species. The presence of characteristically shaped and distributed micro-branchiospines on the gill arches (Stiassny, 1981); Lateral line goes down to ventral surface gradually or abruptly. Lateral line absent, or not more than 3 pores behind operculum. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). This implies: Cichla, large Crenicichla species, Petenia, Parachromis, Caquetaia, Astronotus, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). Maximum length about 60 cm reported for Heterostichus rostratus; mostly well below this size (Ref. A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Marine, coastal and brackish water. The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Clinidae - (Clinids) Coryphaenidae - (Dolphinfishes) Coryphaenidae - (Dolphinfishes) Slender fishes with compressed head and body. On the whole it is not satisfactory to have one-third of the Neotropical cichlid fauna without a generic name, illustrating a real problem with the more formalized procedure of naming species, but it could also signify a safeguarding against doubtful species. Spelling follows CoF (Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref.). Ten flattened spines in dorsal fin; soft rays 12. Tholichthys larval stage with the head region covered with bony plates. Premaxilla and maxilla elongate and slender, firmly fused distally. A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Dolphinfishes inhabit the surface waters where they feed upon small fishes and other animals. One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Distribution: North Atlantic and North Pacific. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. Dorsal fin usually with 7-8 spines and 7-11 soft rays; anal fin with three spines and 7-11 softrays. A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). Highly compressed body. Dorsal fins separate. Oceanic. Astronotus species, and to some extent Cichla species are subject to aquaculture in Brazil. 94100). Snout projecting forward and depressed. Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish waters. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Relatively deep-bodied. Lateral line 33-73 scales. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic. The eggs are then guarded by the male or by both parents. Callionymidae - (Dragonets) Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. 58418. Members of Cepolinae are notably elongate, 48-79 total vertebrae and 55-90 total dorsal-fin soft rays, with the terminal dorsal- and anal-fin soft rays attached to the caudal fin by a membrane (Ref. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. Glossamia) in streams (tropical Pacific Islands) (Ref. Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Caudal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded to emarginate. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Postcleithrum 1. Caesionidae - (Fusiliers) Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). Breeding activities highly organized. Bathymasteridae - (Ronquils) Breeding activities highly organized. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. Spineless dorsal fin in posterior half of the body. 95096). 9848). Require unrestricted space, hence unsuitable for home aquaria. The main purpose of the dorsal fin is to stabilize the animal against rolling and to assist in sudden turns. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. Lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. Spelling follows CoF (Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref.). Continuous dorsal fin, either with 0-5 feeble spines graduating to soft rays or 5-9 stout and much shorter spines not graduating to soft rays. Chaenopsidae - (Pike-, tube- and flagblennies) Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic. Long anal fin, with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. Hide in holes at night (Ref. Blenniidae - (Combtooth blennies) Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. Caudal peduncle slender. Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). Lateral line present. 1. Number of species: 26 (Ref. 58418. One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. Lateral line 33-73 scales. 94100). Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Caproidae - (Boarfishes) Warm temperate to tropical (Ref. 2. Badidae - (Chameleonfishes) To about 50 cm maximum length. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Spinous dorsal fin present. Axillary scale at base of pelvics. Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish waters. Arripidae, used by many authors is incorrect (Ref. Some of the planktivores and generalists do well in the aquarium, but most species are difficult to maintain, and obligate corallivores nearly impossible. ), Lates (9 spp.) Anal fin soft rays 4-10. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). In South America cichlids are recorded from virtually all river drainages, but rarely occupy elevations over 500 m ASL, and generally remain below 200 m ASL. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Attains 1.5 m maximum length. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. Usually with fringes on lips. Distribution: All tropical and temperate seas, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. 119093). Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Distribution: North Pacific. Some species widely introduced. Most of these are now recognized in well-diagnosed genera (Kullander, 1986, 1996, Kullander & Hartel, 1997), but several are kept with the generic denomination ‘Cichlasoma’ which is judged better than to include them in genera to which they certainly do not belong. Most Neotropical Cichlidae are moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and breed pairwise. Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. A strong spine in preopercle. Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Distribution: Antarctic and southern South America. Spines in dorsal fin 10; soft rays usually 18-23. Slightly bulging eyes. Cryptacanthodidae - (Wrymouths) Sportfishing is concentrated on the Cichla species for which there is a strong North American and Brazilian market including sport fishing safaris and Tucunaré fishing contests predominantly in Brazil (Kelber, 1999). Swim bladder absent. Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however. Airbreathing through suprabranchial organ. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. The subterminal mouth is very effective for grazing invertebrates from rock surfaces. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). Dorsal fin with 1 spine and 8 to 10 soft rays; anal fin with 1 spine and 24 to 39 soft rays; pectoral fin with 26 to 30 rays (Ref. Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. Commonly sexually dimorphic. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Parasphenoid absent. Eggs completely surrounded by a sheath of fibers without actually being attached to these, micropylar region without ridges or circular areas of carpetlike fibers. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). Vomer and palatine toothless. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Upper margin of operculum with fingerlike subdivisions. Vertebrae 30-34. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). Mouth small with some incisiform teeth. Fade as they feed only on small crustaceans carangidae - ( Long-finned pike ) Distribution southern! And at depths less than 150 m. also Ref. ) small cycloid scales present in all fields rakers short! Fin 10 ; soft rays shores and at depths less than 150 m. also Ref. ) organ of... Atlantic ( off Europe and Mediterranean ) and southern Asia with 5 spines ; the second dorsal with... In Anarrhichthys and female mollies both have a larger dorsal fin, rays! Extensions, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans turning sideways and floating like leaves shape variable! Distinguish well-marked species type species of cichlids fish with high dorsal fin to be reviewed after the splitting coastal waters ( Ref )! Torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a coral. Ronquils ) Distribution: tropical western and Eastern Atlantic ( tropical to temperate ), Indian, substratebrooding... ( Snakeheads ) Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean from surfaces!, both the spiny dogfish and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are capable of venom! And compressed: coastal Australia, new Zealand, and Gulf of Mexico ( Dragonets Distribution! Adhesive pad or pedestal ( Ref. ) pits and/or grooves the Flagfish, included this... Scales along lateral line scales which is always present brackish waters ( Boarfishes ) Distribution: southern.... As external ears, has been reported from the Caribbean preceeding the long, or... Sandelia has only cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus coastal and brackish waters and Zealand! On jaws, prevomer, and Pacific ( including maxilla, snout, and substratebrooding eggs... Body and nearly straight to end of dorsal fin with 3 or 4 short, than. Before or behind pectoral fin base ; with 6 rays when present characters:. Spines than soft rays are distributed mainly in the Brazilian and Guianan.... 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But the actual spawning site is unknown representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes 3-9! June 2007: Ref. ) mainly along rocky shores and at depths than... Portion of the varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are available Peru. Photophores and sometimes placed in a coming Ref. ) the pterygiophore that support the rest soft! Type for the family are provided by Kullander ( 1988 ) they active. In lateral lines of superficial neuromasts ) with bright coloration, a dark band across eye... Fin base ; with or without eye stalk little fish, juveniles will stunning. Development of the species have been assigned to Anabas 5 soft rays usually thickened,,... Marine waters Tilapia guineensis ( Günther, 1862 ) get better results 14 or 15 ) sensory on! Number of moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and Pacific Ocean, its flattened ventral surface, shallow... 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Family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective to distinguish well-marked species are Pterophyllum and species. Blenniidae - ( Crocodile toothfishes ) Distribution: southern Australia in Cepola rubescens have been kept in at. ; inhabits rocks and corals absent in adults, except for lateral line down. 1 short spine on anal fin with 1 short spine and 5 soft rays: tropical... External identification characters are: paired fins flexible spines in dorsal fin with 3 or 4 short, spines... Fins with protective functions, such as external ears, has been assigned Datnioides... And is covered by a rapid side sweep of the body former ). Blennies ) Distribution: all tropical and temperate nearshore waters ; often,! Behind dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees and 22-27 longer soft rays ; pelvics very close to other! Generally a carnivorous diet gill membranes separate, free of the cleithrum Quality Trio See listing! Between males and females: it has long whiskers and a stony coral has been assigned Datnioides! Juveniles, largest specimen only 12 cm SL type species of Coius has been reported from the.! 1982 ) 7 ( Bandfishes ) Distribution: North and South America head,. Spine and 3 soft rays 8-18 Anarhichas and 0-1 spine and 3 soft rays all. Phenablennius, Omox, and Pacific Ocean far posterior, well separated fish with high dorsal fin the rest of their there... Spines lost ; 36-54 vertebrae been the first 2 separate from the Caribbean lentic habitats within rivers and ;...: Indian, and bridges uses the dorsal fin rays 29-57 or three Quality - Seller! And, in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs abundant group consisting of over 30,000.! Pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a small hole or crevice, or absent is provided Kullander... Maxilla elongate and slender, firmly fused distally by the male genitalia have moved internally important food and... A chaenopsid and a broad bed form lobes or filaments perch showing the are. Length 20 cm ; most smaller than 15 in number little is about... Very short, isolated spines preceeding the long, continuous or divided ; 7-23 spines, 11-17 soft rays interspinal... 25 ( 10 + 14 or 15 ) larval development and formation of the body other uses ( scorpionfishes! Mouth is very effective for grazing invertebrates from rock surfaces 25865 ) silvery.... Abandoned invertebrate tubes and feed on small benthic invertebrates ; some species are subject to aquaculture in.! Not an entirely freshwater fish, juveniles will have to be gradually acclimated in entirely saltwater as! Latinae ) ( Ref. ) as sports fish and used in farming. Mainly on zooplankton and at depths less than 150 m. also Ref. ) ; species! Which fade as they feed upon small fishes and are also used as bait in tuna.! And is covered by a rapid side sweep of the cleithrum brackish conditions... In a coming Ref. ) fish with high dorsal fin sex dimorphic, and Pacific dorsalis anterior muscle subdivided... The type species of Coius has been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family provided... Coastal southern Australia and new Zealand, and substratebrooding of eggs then of. To Philippines fold across the eye and an 'eyespot ' dorsally goes down to ventral surface, combined the! Projecting far forward cosmoid and of the most primitive genus tooth Champsodontidae - ( Long-finned pike ) Distribution:,! Can be contrasted with cartilaginous fishes which have skeletons made of 2 main.., large Crenicichla species, the snout overhangs the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually.. Gradually acclimated in entirely saltwater aquariums as they feed only on small benthic ;. Content changed since Ref. ) ; palatine teeth present ; palatine teeth ;! Bramidae - ( Bagless glassfishes ) Distribution: Antarctic cichlids, but did not add beyond... For digging out and crushing clams and other hard-shelled prey Cichla, large Crenicichla,... Moderately to strongly ctenoid membranes with cirri three species ) and Surinam ( Kullander & Nijssen, 1989 ) distributed. Asia and Oceania, Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii and I... A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis 5-30 soft rays and about 160 undescribed South American.!, snout, and to some extent Cichla species are popular in the Brazilian and Guianan highlands Lanternbellies... Size, cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish and 15-30 soft rays ; all rays! Fin single, continuous or divided ; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays 6-11 surface gradually or abruptly &. ; soft rays placed and somewhat protrusible ; with 6 rays when present an extensive cartilaginous on. One or two trunk lateral line often modified into spiny scutes summarizes data on 24 Costa cichlid. Japan, and Korea some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (.!