The Fate of Reiters is a new game of the series By Shot, Shock and Faith (in French: "Par le feu, le fer et la foi") allows the simulation of religious wars that occurred in France from 1562 to 1598. Many Huguenots emigrated to Protestant countries. [5], Printing in mass editions (including cheap pamphlets and broadsides) allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an unprecedented pace. This pivotal historical event involved a complete breakdown of state control resulting in series of riots and massacres in which Catholic mobs killed between 5,000 and 30,000 Protestants over a period of weeks throughout the entire kingdom. As a result, their interests clashed and conflicts began. French Wars of Religion One of the most unexpected riches of the Gordon Collection is its stock of beautifully bound and preserved pamphlets, polemical writings, royal and parliamentary edicts from the French Wars of Religion (1562-98) or “nos grans troubles & controversités,” as contemporaries often referred to them. [62] Over the next few weeks, the disorder spread to more than a dozen cities across France. [43] However, despite this measure, by the end of the Colloquy in Poissy in October 1561, it was clear that the divide between Catholic and Protestant ideas was already too wide.[44]. The wars ended with Henry’s embrace of Roman Catholicism and the religious toleration of the Huguenots guaranteed by the Edict of Nantes (1598). The exact number of wars and their respective dates are subject to continued debate by historians: some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, while the ensuing resurgence of rebellious activity leads some to believe the Peace of Alès in 1629 is the actual conclusion. [63] Henry of Navarre and his cousin, the young Prince of Condé, managed to avoid death by agreeing to convert to Catholicism. In France, Huguenot opposition to the crown was seriously weakened by the deaths of many of the leaders. At the dawn of the 18th century, Protestants remained in significant numbers in the remote Cévennes region of the Massif Central. [75] The conflict mostly consisted of military action aimed at League members, such as the Battle of Fontaine-Française, though the Spanish launched a concerted offensive in 1595, taking Le Catelet, Doullens and Cambrai (the latter after a fierce bombardment), and in the spring of 1596 capturing Calais by April. When he returned by invitation in 1541, he wrote the Ecclesiastical ordinances, the constitution for a Genevan church, which was passed by the council of Geneva[clarification needed]. He was finally received into Paris in March 1594, and 120 League members in the city who refused to submit were banished from the capital. The popular unrest caused by the assassination, coupled with the resistance by the city of Orléans to the siege, led Catherine de' Medici to mediate a truce, resulting in the Edict of Amboise on 19 March 1563.[51]. Much as Philip II hated and feared a possible Huguenot (French Protestant) victory in France, he was content to see the civil wars continue, anxious most often to intervene on the side of the Catholics yet sometimes covertly offering help to the Huguenots. Catherine’s biography was born on April 13, 1519, in Florence, Italy and she died on January 5, 1589 at the Royal Château de Blois [54] After the Duke was killed in action, his troops remained under the employ of the Huguenots who had raised a loan from England against the security of the Jeanne d'Albret's crown jewels. War could no longer be avoided and civil tolerance had failed. Protesters attacked and massacred Catholic laymen and clergy the following day in Nîmes, in what became known as the Michelade. Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. Wars of Religion & the Edict of Nantes: 1588 - 1598 Henri de Guise was assassinated in 1588 and Henry III in 1589. Meanwhile, a meeting between Bèze and the Cardinal of Lorraine, of the House of Guise, seemed promising; both appeared ready to compromise on the form of worship. Omissions? The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations primarily between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). In the 1550s, the establishment of the Geneva church provided leadership to the disorganized French Calvinist (Huguenot) church. Both repudiated their conversions after they escaped Paris. Historians estimate that Provençal troops killed hundreds to thousands of residents there and in the 22 to 28 nearby villages they destroyed. Guise’s forces occupied Paris and took control of the royal family while the Huguenots rose in the provinces, and their two commanders—Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, and Admiral Gaspard II de Coligny—established headquarters at Orléans. In November, William of Orange led an army into France to support his fellow Protestants, but, the army being poorly paid, he accepted the crown's offer of money and free passage to leave the country. Catherine de’ Medici has been held partly responsible for starting the French Wars of Religion. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In this situation, Catholics were supported by the House of the Guise, while the House of Bourbons sympathized with the Protestants. Viewing the House of Guise as a dangerous threat to the power of the Crown, Henry III decided to strike first. By May 1576, the crown was forced to accept the terms of Alençon, and the Huguenots who supported him, in the Edict of Beaulieu, known as the Peace of Monsieur. It is believed to have started with Louis Bourbon, Prince of Condé, who while returning home to France from a military campaign, passed through Geneva, Switzerland and heard a sermon by a Calvinist preacher. Corrections? The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. Coligny, along with many other Calvinist nobles, arrived in Paris for the wedding of the Catholic princess Margaret of France to the Protestant prince Henry of Navarre on 18 August 1572. General Overviews Holt 2002 contains thematic essays on the French state and its social and economic structures, as well as fuller treatment of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations than most introductory works. Indeed, Pope Leo X, through the Concordat of Bologna increased the king's control over the French church, granting him the power of nominating the clergy and levying taxes on church property. The wars will cease with the Edict of Nantes (30 th of April 1598), an edict that established a limited civil tolerance. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the Duke of Anjou, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, died. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henry II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. The Estates-General of Blois (1576) failed to resolve matters, and by December, the Huguenots had already taken up arms in Poitou and Guyenne. While the Guise faction had the unwavering support of the Spanish Crown, the Huguenots had the advantage of a strong power base in the southwest; they were also discreetly supported by foreign Protestant governments, but in practice, England or the German states could provide few troops in the ensuing conflict. The French monarchy became weak after the death of King Henry II in 1559. This provoked the Second War and its main military engagement, the Battle of Saint-Denis, where the crown's commander-in-chief and lieutenant general, the 74-year-old Anne de Montmorency, died. At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the prince of Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces, nominally on behalf of Condé's 15-year-old son, Henry, and the 16-year-old Henry of Navarre, who were presented by Jeanne d'Albret as the legitimate leaders of the Huguenot cause against royal authority. Henry's army swept through Normandy, taking town after town throughout the winter. 1776-1783 Ultimately, the “solution” to the French Wars of Religion ended up being political unity instead of religious unity, a conclusion reached out of pure pragmatism rather than any kind of heartfelt toleration of difference. Henry and his advisor, the Duke of Sully saw that the essential first step in this was negotiation of the Edict of Nantes, which to promote civil unity granted the Huguenots substantial rights—but rather than being a sign of genuine toleration, was in fact a kind of grudging truce between the religions, with guarantees for both sides. Catholic Commands Montmorency LH Infantry St Andre Guise 3 Gendarmes 1 … 65–93. [57] The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[58] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), negotiated by Jeanne d'Albret, which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. The following year, mobs carried out iconoclasm in more than 20 cities and towns; Catholic urban groups attacked Protestants in bloody reprisals in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities. [15][21] Francis had been severely criticized for his initial tolerance towards Protestants, and now was encouraged to repress them. For Henry and the Protestant army at least, Parma was no longer a threat. [64], In the absence of the duke of Anjou, disputes between Charles and his youngest brother, the duke of Alençon, led to many Huguenots congregating around Alençon for patronage and support. Refusing to return to Paris, Henry III called for an Estates-General at Blois in September 1588. [34]), The first instances of Protestant iconoclasm, the destruction of images and statues in Catholic churches, occurred in Rouen and La Rochelle in 1560. Despite the campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry IV was "no closer to capturing Paris". [47] Later, the Protestants captured Lyon in 29–30 April[47][48] and proceeded to demolish all Catholic institutions in the city.[48]. 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[39][40], The Regent Queen-Mother Catherine de Medici had three courses of action open to her in solving the religious crisis in France. This, however, had been tried and had failed—witness the fact that the Huguenots were now more numerous than they had ever been before. The situation degenerated into open warfare even without the King having the necessary funds. The war was drawn to an official close after the Edict of Nantes, with the Peace of Vervins in May 1598. Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. Francis I died on 31 March 1547 and was succeeded to the throne by his son Henry II, who continued the harsh religious policy that his father had followed during the last years of his reign. The massacre provoked horror and outrage among Protestants throughout Europe, but both Philip II of Spain and Pope Gregory XIII, following the official version that a Huguenot coup had been thwarted, celebrated the outcome. Protestants seized and garrisoned the strategic towns of Angers, Blois, and Tours along the Loire River. Good Religion Politicians All the religious wars that have caused blood to be shed for centuries arise from passionate feelings and facile counter-positions, such as Us and Them, good and bad, white and black. Since the sixteenth century, the French Protestants who were known as the Huguenots and the Catholics were in a religious conflict which had lead to them into a civil war (Wikipedia, French Wars of Religion, 2004). To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned. [47] In the Rhône River valley, Protestants under François de Beaumont, baron des Adrets, attacked Valence; in this attack Guise's lieutenant was killed. [10] They were later exiled out of Geneva because they opposed governmental intrusion upon church administration. Other topics include who the contending parties were in the French wars of religion and the Edict of Nantes, and describing Elizabeth I of England’s religious policy. In early 1562, the regency government attempted to quell escalating disorder in the provinces, which had been encouraged by factional feuds at court, by instituting the Edict of Saint-Germain, also known as the Edict of January. On 12 May 1588, the Day of the Barricades, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris to defend the Duke of Guise against the alleged hostility of the king, and Henry III fled the city. Another war followed, which concl… Following the Spanish capture of Amiens in March 1597 the French crown laid siege until its surrender in September. The legislation made concessions to the Huguenots to dissuade them from rebelling. By April, the crown was already seeking to negotiate,[66] and the escape of Alençon from court in September prompted the possibility of an overwhelming coalition of forces against the crown, as John Casimir of the Palatinate invaded Champagne. The Huguenots gathered a formidable army under the command of Condé, aided by forces from south-east France, led by Paul de Mouvans, and a contingent of fellow Protestant militias from Germany — including 14,000 mercenary reiters led by the Calvinist Duke of Zweibrücken. Henry secretly left Poland and returned via Venice to France, where he faced the defection of Montmorency-Damville, ex-commander in the Midi (November 1574). About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features There were many causes of the war, but the most important causes are the Reformation of the Protestants, the weakness of the French Monarchy, and the powerful rivalry of the Catholics and Protestants. The massacres provoked further military action, which included Catholic sieges of the cities of Sommières (by troops led by Henri I de Montmorency), Sancerre, and La Rochelle (by troops led by the duke of Anjou). Amidst fears of Huguenot reprisals for the murder, the Duke of Guise and his supporters acted. Henry IV was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished kingdom and uniting it under a single authority. 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