Value-based performance excellence model for higher education institutions. A theoretical distinction is made between cultural, demographic, and personal constructs. Furthermore, the Describes the four steps involved: development of the questionnaire; administration to sample of market; assessment of general preferences; and assessing the extent to which individuals in the sample apply their human values directly or indirectly when forming product preference. Cognitive, affective, and conative antecedents To address the research objective, surveys were administered to 231 online adult browsers and 311 online adult buyers. The process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units. This reduces investment costs by 25% and reduces operating costs by 35%. • Nord Stream 2 will enhance the liquidity of Central European gas hubs in EU gas trading and pricing, and strengthen their role as continental price markers. The need to attain or avoid cognitive closure may be an important cognitive-motivational factor underlying the endorsement and pursuit of particular values. Cheap travel Eastern Europe can be significantly less expensive than Western Europe. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries, Comparative Evaluation and the Relationship Between Quality, Satisfaction, and Repurchase Loyalty, Negotiating with Yourself and Losing: Making Decisions with Competing Internal Preferences, Structural Factors in the Economic Reforms of China, Eastern Europe, and the Former Soviet Union, Representing and Testing Organizational Theories: A Holistic Construal, The measurement of etic aspect of individualism and collectivism across cultures, The Institutional Effects on Strategic Alliance Partner Selection in Transition Economies: China vs. Russia, Consumer Choice Between Hedonic and Utilitarian Goods, Shopping Online for Freedom, Control, and Fun, Chinese Cultural Values: Their Dimensions and Marketing Implications, Modeling the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction and repurchase intentions in a business-business, services context: An empirical examination, A Structural Equation Test of the Value-Attitude-Behavior Hierarchy, A Comprehensive Framework for Service Quality: An Investigation of Critical Conceptual and Measurement Issues Through a Longitudinal Study, The Effects of Culture and Socioeconomics on the Performance of Global Brand Image Strategies, A Means-End Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes, Information Processing from Advertisements: Toward an Integrative Framework, Assessing construct validity in organizational research, The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China, On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models, Values and consumption patterns: A closed loop, China: Move over, Karl Marx - Here comes Confucius, The Value Orientations of Minority and Non-Minority Small Business Owners, Differences in "cultural values" and their effects on responses to marketing stimuli. These organizational cultures differ from one company to the other within the same country. value. In addition, NFCC was unrelated to valuing hedonism, power, universalism, and benevolence, but negatively related to valuing achievement. Both practitioners and academics understand that consumer loyalty and satisfaction are linked inextricably. Non-wage benefits, corporate ownership and firm performance in post-communist economies: evidence fr... Understanding Failure in International Retailing: An Institutional Framework for Future Investigatio... Marketing Implications of Communist Ideological Legacy in Culture in the Context of Central and East... Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (Koch, 1844) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Businesses have the ability to leverage their own first-party customer data – which is the most reliable and valuable data source – to personalize customer experiences. The paper ends with some suggestions for updating the representation of labour in a period when – after it disappeared into museums – it now seems to be disappearing within them. These concepts are a running thread through many eastern and western cultural differences. The questionnaire was administered to 417 high school students and 136 college students from ethnically diverse schools. Middle East: Middle-Eastern societies, largely Muslim, require less contact than those in the European and American societies. The article discusses the implications of these findings for practitioners and for future research on service quality. In a highly collective culture like India or China, team roles are shared and fluid, with people pitching in wherever needed. While for brand-loyal Chinese consumers experiential image was the most important aspect of the branded apparel appeal to female consumers, social image with performance quality assurance was a more important feature of the branded apparel appeal to consumers in Korea. Also, while closing transactions at web sites is one important e-commerce goal, companies should not lose site of the continuing importance and power of their web site as an information and communications vehicle. No strong correlation was found to exist between gender and any of the characteristics under investigation. Transport, accommodation and food tend to take a smaller bite out of your wallet, without compromising on history, culture, and experience. The author then discusses the implications for managers marketing brands internationally and the directions for further research. As a corollary, Central European gas markets are set to integrate further, which may give consumers choice and increase gas-on-gas competition in the region. THE COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER SATISFACTION AND BRAND LOYALTY, Culture and Consumer Behavior: Toward an Understanding of Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior in International Marketing, Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America, The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Behavior, Information Processing Models of Consumer Behavior, Consumers' Perceptions of the Product. Taking advantage of the shared aspect of culture, a method is presented that extracts a shared element of subjective culture from cultural samples. However, significant differences emerge when these are examined in terms of income. In the paper, emphasis will be placed on the following: general information of B&H (geographic location, climate, land and vegetation), epidemiology, distribution and seasonal dynamic of Hy. The analysis concludes that satisfaction is a necessary step in loyalty formation but becomes less significant as loyalty begins to set through other mechanisms. Lower-Context Cultures Figure 1. In general, the analyses of the results revealed that: customer satisfaction with the car, as well as dealer loyalty are major determinants of brand loyalty; customer satisfaction with the sales service as well as with the after‐sales service are major determinants of dealer loyalty and dealer loyalty is an intervening variable in the relation between satisfaction and brand loyalty. and in many parts of Latin America. Likewise, business etiquette regarding taboos, time keeping, dress code, bribery and corruption also share many similarities. Those are studied in the aspects of consumer behavior, product and brand development, distribution, marketing communications and their impact on doing business in Central and Eastern Europe. Next, true brand loyalty is distinguished from spurious brand loyalty. Significant changes in market structure will force Gazprom to take choices regarding its market strategy. Another important difference is linguistics – this is due to a wide geographical spread. Uses a study of Toyota Corolla as an example. It focuses on the representation of labour and the various related aspects. In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. Such cultures include Northern Europe and North America. Eastern Europe is a wonderful part of the world and to know the history makes the journey so much more meaningful. The education system is more or less the same across most Eastern European countries: for example, they all offer the possibility of changing school after the first 5 years of study to either a grammar or technical school. Soviet Industry from Stalin to Gorbachev: Essays on Management and Innovation, Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review of Recommended Two-Step Approach, The Influence of Cultural Individualism-Collectivism, Self Construals, and Individual Values on Communication Styles Across Cultures, A Method for Determining Cultural, Demographic, and Personal Constructs, The Multigroup Ethnic Identity MeasureA New Scale for Use with Diverse Groups, French versus American Consumers' Attachment of Value to a Product in a Common Consumption Context: A Cross-National Comparison, Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework, A practical method for uncovering the direct and indirect relationships between human values and consumer purchases, Cross-cultural consumer values, needs and purchase behavior, The Importance of Customer Satisfaction in Explaining Brand and Dealer Loyalty, Social Values and Female Fashion Leadership: A Cross-Cultural Study. All six countries have the Euro as their common currency, they are all within the same time zone (CET: 0) and the political and economic structures are relatively stable. While consumers are more likely to describe offline rather than online shopping in experiential terms, evidence of experiential motivations for online shopping is emerging. analysis suggests that consumption consequences are especially culturally sensitive. The procedure is quantitative, uses large samples and employs widely known statistical techniques such as correlations, regression and (optionally) factor analysis. As hypothesized, these consumers reported the value of excitement to be more important than nonleaders. One hundred men and women from a southeastern British university completed measures of NFCC and basic values. retailers from Western Europe, and to a lesser extent, North America have led the way (Coe and Wrigley, 2007: 341). Online Store Perceptions: How to Turn Browsers into Buyers? This article investigates the influence of French and American national culture on consumer perceptions of productrelated Rotating distributor optimizes air admission. with a matched sample of French and American consumers. • While Nord Stream 2 does not exert significant impact on South Eastern Europe, the situation of SEE nonetheless merits attention. Low Contact cultures stand at a greater distance and generally avoid physical contact. Values are viewed as partly based on needs, but little research has been devoted to testing this relationship. Nord Stream 2 demonstrates that Europe needs to take choices on whether the Commission emerges a political actor in its own right or whether it remains defined as power watchdog; and whether EU rules are applicable across the board or be applied so that they follow political objectives. Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. The study also finds that perceptions and measured disconfirmation offer several advantages over computed disconfirmation (i.e., difference scores), and that a cross-sectional measurement design for service quality is preferred to a longitudinal design. Building on research on elaboration, the authors propose that the relative salience of hedonic dimensions is greater when consumers decide which of several items to give up (forfeiture choices) than when they decide which item to acquire (acquisition choices). Highlighting an interdisciplinary approach to migration and the instability of group identities in contemporary Italy, An Alliance of Women presents migrants grappling with spatialized boundaries amid growing nativist and anti-immigrant sentiment in Western Europe. Because of the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. policies become institutionalized and create groups with a vested interest in their perpetuation. a nation dominated by another country. Through this analysis, Merrill reveals the dynamics of an alliance consisting of women from many countries of origin and religious and class backgrounds. On a marginal costs basis, Nord Stream 2 might emerge an important hedging strategy against competitively priced US LNG imports. Ethnic identity is an important component of the self-concept and, like other aspects of identity, can be particularly salient during adolescence. As most of the Middle Eastern countries are Islamic their food excludes the consumption of pork or alcohol in any form. Implications for international businesses are drawn regarding the applicability of multilocal or global strategies for corporate culture. 1.3 Occupational level: This kind of culture comes between the national and organizational cultures; getting into an occupation such as teaching requires the social values acquired coupled with the practices of the organization. Other needs such as physiological and safety needs are basic needs that are present in any culture, although it may not be sought after in the sequence proposed by Maslow. Key features of the framework are (1) a more complete, integrative discussion of needs and motivation, (2) a more precise specification of processing mechanisms than currently is proposed in two-routes-to-persuasion models, (3) inclusion of a new typology of emotional and cognitive responses explicitly linked to the levels of brand processing, and (4) a discussion of how alternative attitude formation models correspond to each level of brand processing. Individualism-collectivism has a direct effect on communication styles and an indirect effect that is mediated through self construals and values. While all cultures work in teams, the meaning of the team can be very different. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. In between these poles are countries, like Britain or the US, in which a more gradual erosion occurred in tandem with weakened trade unionism. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Business Culture, Communication Access & Realtime Translation (CART), Startup Management: How to Setup a Successful Online Business, A Job in Dublin : 5 Reasons to Work in Ireland. There are also other language groups in this region – for example Latvian and Lithuanian belong to the Baltic group whilst the Romanian language has Latin origins and is very close to Italian and Spanish. It’s a taboo to shake hands at the doorway for a Pole but acceptable for other countries. Case 3.1 The Case Of Maize Meat In Africa. Using rich ethnographic material, she traces the emergence of Alma Mater—an anti-racist organization formed to address problems encountered by migrant women. The individual is more important than the group, and you must fend for yourself. Globalization and household saving: is there a link? NEC aims to help solve a wide range of challenging issues and to create new social value for the changing world of tomorrow. cultures. Punctuality is very important throughout the region and regarded as a sign of reliability; a lateness of up to 15mins is generally acceptable but frowned upon. Originality/value – The originality of the paper relates to its study of consumer behaviour in one of the emerging markets of central and eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is a region that encompasses many different cultures, ethnicities, languages, and histories. satellite nation. The implications include those relating to brand loyalty, gift-giving behaviour, consumer satisfaction, consumer complaint behaviour and promotion activities. Finally, consistent with the experimental findings, a field survey showed that, relative to market prices, owners of relatively hedonic cars value their vehicles more than do owners of relatively utilitarian cars. The study's results suggest that China's more stable and supportive institutional environment has helped Chinese firms take a longer-term view of alliance partner selection, focusing more on the potential partner's intangible assets along with technological and managerial capabilities. Explore the following pages, which contain more information on each of these Eastern European countries: Share your European work/study experiences. The main marketing strategies for which this method can yield useful information are: solidifying consumers’ current perceptions and evaluations of the product; and changing consumer perceptions of the product. The present study examined the relative importance placed on social values by women fashion leaders compared with nonleaders in two samples, one from the U.S. and one from the United Kingdom. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Attempts to disaggregate performance into its component multiple dimensions, and assess the individual impact of each on post-purchase evaluation processes. Using the Newell, Shaw, and Simon postulates for an information processing theory of human problem solving, decision net models were constructed for two individual consumers' choices of grocery products. m. marginatum, influences of climate conditions (air temperature, precipitation and relative humidity) in prevalence of Hy. Increases in income lead to a decrease in the favourability with which own brands are viewed in the Czech Republic – the opposite to the position in the UK. the impact of communist ideology on culture in the Central and Eastern European countries focusing on Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine, the current state-of-art, and the implications for marketing activities in the region for both western and local marketers. Hence different parts of the world feature different cultures that vary very much from one another. Theoretical implications are discussed. Introduced by the white settler, maize meat is the staple diet of the population of countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Zambia, for example is capable of producing over 30 million x 90Kgs bags with a marketable surplus of 20 million x 90Kg bags, most of which goes to feed the urban population. Cultures Arranged Along High-Context and Low-Context Dimension From Figure 1 we can see the three Asian countries, Japan, China and Korea fall into the category of high-context cultures in which, according to the Halls, people are very homogeneous with regard to experiences, information networks, and the like. As of mid 1988 over 200.000 persons have clinically manifested AIDS, in addition, 150.000 more cases are expected to occur in the remainder of 1988 and this figure will grow to over a million cases by the early 1990ies. When shopping and service experiences are friendly and a consumer is treated as an individual – as someone the brand knows personally – consumers return and spend more. It was hypothesized that cultural individualism-collectivism, self construals, and values would have separate effects on individuals’use of low- and high-context communication styles. Whilst the country will indeed lose transit fees should the bulk of Russian gas exports to Western Europe no longer flow through the country, it stands to gain in terms of lower gas prices. When I worked at Harrods, a large department store in London, we had a video played to us in our induction by Mohammed Al Fayed who was the owner at the time. People also call it as East Europe. Consistent with theories of epistemic closure, this research supports the idea that individual differences in NFCC give rise to values which match and satisfy individual needs to attain or avoid cognitive closure. Because of this wide geographical spread there are some other notable differences between these countries, for example Czechs are generally non-confrontational while a Slovak or a Pole will be more straight forward and outspoken with their opinion. DAMPAK DIMENSI EKUITAS MEREK DALAM MEMBENTUK MINAT BELI ULANG, Analysis on Young Consumers’ Consumer Values and Their Attitudes toward Foreign Firms, COMPORTAMIENTO DE COMPRA DE FÓRMULAS… CADENA DE FARMACIAS INFANT FORMULA NUTRITION BUYING BEHAVIOR IN A PHARMACY CHAIN. This study finds that factors relevant to service quality are better conceived as its antecedents rather than its components and that customer satisfaction strongly mediates the effect of service quality on behavioral intentions. Sweden is vastly different from Portugal. Only Slovakia and Estonia use the Euro while the rest of the countries in this region are still using their local currency. Student placement still does not receive enough support from the business community in most of these countries even though universities are working hard towards changing this fact. A self-report scale of fashion leadership was carefully validated for both samples and used to identify fashion leaders. The patterns for cultural individualism-collectivism were not as clear-cut. In a subsequent experiment, these findings were extended to hypothetical choices in which the acquisition and forfeiture conditions were created by manipulating initial attribute-level reference states instead of ownership. That's what makes travel fun. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. The article discusses the application of this chronological framework in understanding and predicting service quality and its consequences. 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