Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632, Medina), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān. Muhammad gave amnesty to many of the Meccan leaders who had opposed him and pardoned many others. Osama bin Laden is a terrorist extremist who planned the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and is intent on driving Western influence from the Muslim world. Those reports are not consistent, however, and some include miraculous elements or stories obviously adapted from the Bible. Muhammad was born around 570, AD in Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia). Such evidence provides sufficient confirmation of the historical existence of an Arab prophet by the name of Muhammad. In 610 he experienced a vision of the archangel Gabriel. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Muslim statesman Muhammad Ali Jinnah led Pakistan’s independence from British-controlled India and was its first governor-general and president of its constituent assembly. Muhammad was born in 570 CE in the city of Mecca of the Hejaz province of Arabia. The name of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) mother was Hazrat Bibi Aminah. His youngest daughter, Fāṭimah, married Muhammad’s cousin ʿAlī, the fourth of Muhammad’s successors as leader of the Muslim community. The name Muhammad (ﷺ) was given to the Prophet by his mother and grandfather.. Moreover, in all his actions and dealings, he was ever mindful and fearful of God. Ibn Isḥāq’s original book was not his own composition but rather a compilation of autonomous reports about specific events that took place during the life of Muhammad and also prior to it, which Ibn Isḥāq arranged into what he deemed to be their correct chronological order and to which he added his own comments. For instance, unlike many earlier Western accounts, no attempt will be made to remove supernatural elements from the narrative in the interest of transforming it into an account that appears plausible by modern historiographical standards. Islamic tradition holds that the first persons to believe were his wife, Khadija and his close friend Abu Bakr (regarded as the successor to Muhammad by Sunni Muslims). “Muhammad” is the name which is repeated many times in the Qur’an, the name “Ahmad” was mentioned by Prophet ^Isa. There Muhammad was instrumental in bringing an end to a civil war raging amongst several of the city’s tribes. As of 2015, there are over 1.8 billion Muslims in the world who profess, “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”. The name-MUHAMMAD was given to him by his grandfather-Abdul-Mutallab, his father-Abdullaahi died when he was two months in his mother's womb. Arguably the single most important work in the genre is Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq’s (died 767–768) Kitāb al-maghāzī (“Book of [the Prophet’s] Military Expeditions”). This was especially true for members of Muhammad’s own tribe, the Quraysh, who were the guardians of the Kaaba. At the same time, the nature of the sources is not such as to inspire confidence that we possess historically certain knowledge about the Prophet’s life that is as detailed as many earlier scholars tended to assume. Recite for your lord is most generous….” These words became the opening verses of sūrah (chapter) 96 of the Qur'an. John Allen Muhammad became an infamous figure as part of a sniper team that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for several weeks in October 2002. Soon, Muhammad began to gather a small following, initially encountering no opposition. Names of the Prophet (Pbuh) Our web site has a large number of names of Prophet Muhammad. The name of his (S.A.W) grandfather was Abd al-Muttalib. However, when his message condemned idol worship and polytheism, many of Mecca’s tribal leaders began to see Muhammad and his message as a threat. Most people in Mecca either ignored him or mocked him as just another prophet. O God, bless, sanctify and grant peace to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Many (though not all) Muslims reject visual representations (e.g., images and sculpted figures) of religious figures, or even visual representations of living things, seeing it as a form of idolatry (worship of physical objects), which is inconsistent with their monotheism. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. This digest does not aim to separate historical fact from later legend. The Qurʾān provides very few concrete details regarding Muhammad’s life. Their marriage was an astute political alliance. Prophet Muhammad's Lineage to Adnaan: The 100 Word Eulogy of the Prophet Muhammad by Emperor Hongwu of China (1368-1398) Professor of Jewish Studies David J Wasserstein: How Islam Saved the Jews: A Notification to the EDL, 'Britain First' and 'Make Britain Great Again' That King Richard II (d. 1400) and King John (d. 1216) Were Not 'Pedophiles' He is usually said to have had 14 wives or concubines during his lifetime. The Prophet Muhammad was a perfect example of an honest, just, merciful, compassionate, truthful, and brave human being. During the Uhud campaign, it was breastfeeding her kitten. By carefully comparing accounts, scholars have identified common elements that were in circulation by the late 7th century, and some rudimentary details are confirmed by non-Islamic sources (e.g., a Syriac chronicle and an Armenian history) dating to the first few decades after his traditional death date. This event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Muhammad was the prophet and founder of Islam. The following section will nonetheless provide a concise digest mainly of Ibn Isḥāq’s version of the life of the Prophet. Asma-e-Muhammad (saw): Collection of the 99 beautiful names of Holy Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (pbuh) with their meanings in English Saturday, December 19, 2020 islamicoccasions.com Muammar al-Qaddafi seized control of the Libyan government in 1969 and ruled as an authoritarian dictator for more than 40 years before he was overthrown in 2011. … God Name Allah. An important collector of such early traditions was ʿUrwah ibn al-Zubayr, a relative of ʿĀʾishah who was probably born in 643–644 and who is plausibly viewed as having had firsthand access to former companions of the Prophet. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He is believed to be the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Many of the tribes living in the Arabian Peninsula at the time were nomadic, trading goods as they crisscrossed the desert. Born in Mecca about 570 CE, Muhammad married a wealthy widow, Khadījah, in 595. The scholars of Islam said that the Prophet was named “Ahmad” because he is the most grateful among thankful people. Muhammad was the prophet and founder of Islam. The Story Of Prophet Muhammad: Early Life Of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ)In the 570th year of our era a boy was born who was named after Muhammad and who was destined to become the Prophet of one of the greatest religions of the world, Islam. At age 40 he is said to have begun receiving revelations from the angel Gabriel. Besides going against long standing beliefs, the condemnation of idol worship had economic consequences for merchants who catered to the thousands of pilgrims who came to Mecca every year. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Besides her, all the wives of the Prophet Muhammad were widows. He was born in Mecca as a member of the ruling Hashim clan of the tribe of Quraysh. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. The 201 names of our master and Prophet, Muhammad, God's blessings and peace be upon him! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Muslim-American Olympic fencer Ibtihaj Muhammad will become Barbie's first doll wearing a hijab as part of Mattel's Shero collection. Muhammad is the prophet and founder of Islam. Certain verses assume that Muhammad and his followers dwell at a settlement called al-madīnah (“the town”) or Yathrib (e.g., 33:13, 60) after having previously been ousted by their unbelieving foes, presumably from the Meccan sanctuary (e.g., 2:191). Aisha bint Abu Bakr. All of the prophets were grateful but our Prophet was the most thankful and grateful to his Creator. Most Islamic historians believe Muhammad was initially disturbed by the revelations and that he didn’t reveal them publicly for several years. It truly speaks of the ambiguous nature of Indonesia’s controversial Information and Electronic Transactions Act (UU ITE) that a cleric was reported to the police for alleged violation of the law after he told a story in public that he met with Prophet Muhammad in a dream. For example, before Muhammad’s emigration to Medina he is said to have received an oath of allegiance by twelve inhabitants of the city, an obvious parallel to the Twelve Apostles, and during the digging of a defensive trench around Medina Muhammad is said to have miraculously sated all the workers from a handful of dates, recalling Jesus’ feeding of the multitude. Muhammad and his followers then proceeded to destroy all of the statues of pagan gods in and around the Kaaba. Finally, it is distinctly possible that some reports about events in Muhammad’s life emerged not from historical memory but from exegetical speculation about the historical context of particular verses of the Qurʾān. Increasingly, the resistance to Muhammed and his followers grew and they were eventually forced to emigrate from Mecca to Medina, a city 260 miles to the north in 622. The Angel Gabriel appeared and relayed the word of God: “Recite in the name of your Lord who creates, creates man from a clot! Updates? Muhammad was also very religious, occasionally taking journeys of devotion to sacred sites near Mecca. Due to which he altered his soldier’s course. However, the text provides no dates for any of the historical events it alludes to, and almost none of the Qurʾānic messenger’s contemporaries are mentioned by name (a rare exception is at 33:37). According to Islamic tradition, the Qurʾān, understood as a literal transcription of the speech of God (Allah), was revealed to Muhammad in stages by the archangel Gabriel, beginning in 610. She is the only virgin woman married to the Prophet Muhammad. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina. After his clan withdrew its protection, he fled to Medina in 622 and repulsed two attacks by Meccan forces in 625 and 627. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became the supreme religious leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, following many years of resistance to Shah Pahlavi. Nonetheless, some accretion of popular legend around a figure as seminal as Muhammad would be entirely expected. Salman Rushdie is a British-Indian novelist best known for the novels 'Midnight's Children' and 'The Satanic Verses,' for which he was accused of blasphemy against Islam. [2] Anas bin Malik (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “A child was born this night and I named him after the name of my father Ibrahim (PBUH).” (pbuh) Prophet Mohammed said: "Whoever is named after me with the hope of being blessed, he will be blessed and will be in peace till the Day of Qiyaamah." Mecca hosted a variety of idols and was considered a sacred site focused around the Ka’aba (which is still considered sacred by the Muslims). Variants of the material compiled by Ibn Isḥāq, as well as further material about events in Muhammad’s life, are preserved in works by other authors, such as Abd al-Razzāq (died 827), al-Wāqidī (died 823), Ibn Saʿd (died 845), and al-Ṭabarī (died 923). Biography according to the Islamic tradition, Status in the Qurʾān and in post-Qurʾānic Islam, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muhammad, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Mohammed, Muhammad - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Muhammad - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). At least to historians who are reluctant to admit reports of divine intervention, the problem is reinforced by the miraculous elements of some of the material included in Ibn Isḥāq’s work. the prophet muhammad, prophet muhammad, the prophet muhammad birthday, the prophet muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam, the prophet muhammad peace be upon him, the prophet muhammad quotes, the prophet muhammad family tree, the prophet muhammad s birthday holiday, the prophet muhammad full name, the prophet muhammad story, mercy messenger His clan – Hashim, belonged to a respected tribe – Quraish, his clan (headed by his grandfather – Abd al Mutalib at the time) provided water to the pilgrims traveling to Mecca. Hence, even if one accepts that the Qurʾānic corpus authentically documents the preaching of Muhammad, taken by itself it simply does not provide sufficient information for even a concise biographical sketch. Most of the Meccan population converted to Islam. She soon became attracted to this young, accomplished man and proposed marriage. He was the head of the tribe Quraish. At age 40, he began to have revelations from Allah that became the basis for the Koran and the foundation of Islam. By now, Muhammad had plenty of forces and the balance of power had shifted away from the Meccan leaders to him. She (Aisha) lived with the Prophet Muhammad for 9 years. However, Shi’a tradition states he welcomed the message from the Angel Gabriel and was deeply inspired to share his experience with other potential believers. However, this work is extant only in later reworkings and abridgements, of which the best known is ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Hishām’s (died 833–834) Sīrat Muḥammad rasūl Allāh (“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”). For instance, a Syriac chronicle dating from about 640 mentions a battle between the Romans and “the Arabs of Muhammad,” and an Armenian history composed about 660 describes Muhammad as a merchant who preached to the Arabs and thereby triggered the Islamic conquests. The following are two traditions from the seerah by Ibn Kathir, about the reason behind the name:. His (S.A.W) father had died before his birth. Most tribes were polytheistic, worshipping their own set of gods. Aisha: Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr, fondly called the ‘Mother of the Believers’, was one of the wives of … On one of his pilgrimages in 610, he was meditating in a cave on Mount Jabal aI-Nour. As per Arabic tradition of the time, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) appointed Umm Saif (RA) as the wet nurse of infant Ibrahim. The name Muhammad has broken into a parenting website’s top 10 list of most popular baby boy names for the very first time. Muhammad Ali was a heavyweight boxing champion with an impressive 56-win record. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Muslims and Baha'is believe he was a messenger and a prophet of Allah ().He is believed to be a descendant of Ishmael, a son of Abraham, and the last of all prophets (the seal of the prophets).He is seen as an example for all Muslims to follow. The name, which honors Islam’s final prophet, the Prophet Muhammad, crawled from 14th place in 2018 to 10th place in 2019, according to data collected from U.S. parents by BabyCenter . The treaty was broken by the Meccan allies a year later. Some weeks later, the child was born, and named Muhammad. Most of the biographical information that the Islamic tradition preserves about Muhammad thus occurs outside the Qurʾān, in the so-called sīrah (Arabic: “biography”) literature. Moreover, a number of rudimentary details about Muhammad are confirmed by non-Islamic sources dating from the first decades after Muhammad’s traditional date of death. Allah, praise, sanctify and grant peace to one named Muhammad (thepraised), may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.2. Each such report is normally introduced by a list of names tracing it through various intermediaries back to its ultimate source, which in many cases is an eyewitness—for example, the Prophet’s wife ʿĀʾishah. Muhammad (Arabic: محمد ‎; pronounced ; c. 570 – 8 June 632) was the founder of Islam. We strive for accuracy and fairness. The Prophet Muhammad died when she was 18 years old. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had named him after Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). Sensing a threat, Mecca’s merchants and leaders offered Muhammad incentives to abandon his preaching, but he refused. Associate Professor of Islamic Studies, University of Oxford. When asked why they chose this name and the reactions they received, the parents who had chosen the name Muhammad answered in the following way: Hatice Tarhan: There are a number of reasons why I chose the name Muhammad, but the most important is that it is the name of our Prophet. Hafsa was also previously married. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! The fact that such biographical narratives about Muhammad are encountered only in texts dating from the 8th or 9th century or even later is bound to raise the problem of how confident one can be in the sīrah literature’s claim to relay accurate historical information. Elijah Muhammad rose from poverty to become the charismatic leader of the black nationalist group Nation of Islam, and mentor of Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) found an Abyssinian cat which was of black and white color. By 630 he had unified most of Arabia under a single religion. Muhammad settled in Medina, building his Muslim community and gradually gathering acceptance and more followers. Upon his return to Medina to his wife’s home, he fell ill for several days. `Name of Prophet Muhammad` Illustration Vector in gold color and maroon background. Most of his early life was spent as a merchant. He concluded a truce with Mecca in 628 but later forced it to submit. All things considered, there is no compelling reason to suggest that the basic scaffolding of the traditional Islamic account of Muhammad’s life is unhistorical. Lady Hafsa. By carefully comparing alternative versions of one and the same biographical narrative, scholars have been able to show that a certain number of traditions about Muhammad’s life—for instance, an account of the Prophet’s emigration from Mecca to Medina—were in circulation already by the end of the 7th century. The most famous site was the Kaaba (meaning cube in Arabic). 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