Shinto is a religion but unlike others, it has no known founder nor are there any sacred texts or formalized teachings. [334] The processions for matsuri can be raucous, with many of the participants being drunk;[335] Breen and Teeuwen characterised them as having a "carnivalesque atmosphere". [18] Western religions tend to stress exclusivity, but in Japan, it has long been considered acceptable to practice different religious traditions simultaneously. Often the vocal accompaniment is overshadowed by the drumming and instruments, reinforcing that the vocal aspect of the music is more for incantation rather than aesthetics. [361] Several rival clans who were more hostile to these foreign influences began adapting the shrines of their kami to more closely resemble the new Buddhist structures. [236] They generally do not live at the shrines. [225] As with teachers, instructors, and Buddhist clergy, Shinto priests are often referred to as sensei by lay practitioners. Shinto has no single creator or specific doctrinal text, but exists in a diverse range of local and regional forms. [248] These may be made of paper, wood, cloth, metal, or plastic. [201], In Shinto, it is seen as important that the places in which kami are venerated be kept clean and not neglected. [248], Some Shinto practitioners do not offer their prayers to the kami directly, but rather request that a priest offer them on their behalf; these prayers are known as kitō. [18] Its views of kannagara influence certain ethical views, focused on sincerity (makoto) and honesty (tadashii). It is performed by singers and musicians using shakubyoshi wooden clappers, a hichiriki, a kagura-bue flute, and a six-stringed zither. [51] At this point, the term Shinto increasingly referred to "the authority, power, or activity of a kami, being a kami, or, in short, the state or attributes of a kami. [290] Among the ancient forms of divination found in Japan are rokuboku and kiboku. [190] More broadly, torii are internationally recognised symbols of Japan. [149], Shinto priests may face various ethical conundrums. [22] Shinto has integrated elements from religious traditions imported into Japan from mainland Asia, such as Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese divination practices. [304] There is a mythological tale of how kagura dance came into existence. Following the Meiji Restoration, in 1868 the government recognised specifically Shinto funerals for Shinto priests. Sign in. Some scholars suggest we talk about types of Shintō such as popular Shintō, folk Shintō, domestic Shintō, sectarian Shintō, imperial house Shintō, shrine Shintō, state Shintō, new Shintō religions, etc. These funds are used to pay the wages of the priests, to finance the upkeep of the buildings, to cover the shrine's membership fees of various regional and national Shinto groups, and to contribute to disaster relief funds. There is no real founder of Shintoism. [250] Requests for rain, known as amagoi ('rain-soliciting') have been found across Japan, with Inari a popular choice for such requests. Who was the Founder of Jainism - Jainism originated in India during the 6th Century BC. [73] Objects commonly chosen for this purpose include mirrors, swords, stones, beads, and inscribed tablets. [33] The prominent Shinto theologian Sokyo Ono for instance described kami worship was "an expression" of the Japanese "native racial faith which arose in the mystic days of remote antiquity" and that it was "as indigenous as the people that brought the Japanese nation into existence". [45] Among the earliest known appearances of the term Shinto in Japan is in the 8th-century text, Nihon Shoki. The scholar of religion Ninian Smart for instance suggested that one could "speak of the kami religion of Japan, which lived symbiotically with organized Buddhism, and only later was institutionalized as Shinto. Classified as an East Asian religion by scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature religion. Although Shintoism is a religion, there is no known founder. Introduction. Shinto has no founder or founding date. "[29], Shinto tends to focus on ritual behavior rather than doctrine. These bells are usually in the shapes of the zodiacal animals. [60] Several scholars have argued against translating kami into English. Shinto has no known founder or single sacred scripture. [350] Despite this Meiji promotion of Shinto funerals, the majority of the population continued to have Buddhist funeral rites. There is no universally agreed definition of Shinto. Shinto is primarily found in Japan, where there are around 100,000 public shrines, although practitioners are also found abroad. To this end, the siblings stirred the briny sea with a jewelled spear, from which Onogoro Island was formed. Other prayers reflect more contemporary concerns. Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. The shrine is devoted to Japan's war dead, and in 1979 it enshrined 14 men, including Hideki Tojo, who had been declared Class-A defendants at the 1946 Tokyo War Crimes Trials. [206] Shrines may have legends about their foundation, which are known as en-gi. [359] Contemporary education standards have all but eradicated the need for specialized training for the blind. [57] This term has varyingly been translated into English as "god" or "spirit". Most of the country's population takes part in both Shinto and Buddhist activities, especially festivals, reflecting a common view in Japanese culture that the beliefs and practices of different religions need not be exclusive. [321] Autumn festivals are known as aki-matsuri and primarily focus on thanking the kami for the rice or other harvest. This style was developed in the imperial court and is still performed on imperial grounds every December. This purifies the site and asks the kami to bless it. [415] In the late 1970s and 1980s the work of a secular historian Kuroda Toshio attempted to frame the prior held historical views of Shinto not as a timeless "indigenous" entity, but rather an amalgam of various local beliefs infused over time with outside influences through waves of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. In this, they could be either hongaku, the pure spirits of the Buddhas, or honji suijaku, transformations of the Buddhas in their attempt to help all sentient beings.[380]. Shintoism was founded around 550 B.C.E in … Breen and Teeuwen characterise the period between 1868 and 1915, during the Meiji era, as being the "formative years" of modern Shinto. Lv 4. Start studying Shintoism. [178] On a lower level can be found the hall of offerings, known as a heiden. [339] These sort of celebrations are often organized largely by members of the local community rather than by the priests themselves. Shintoism You should ... a general term for a number of sects founded by private persons and based on various interpretations of traditional Shinto. [272] Instruments used include three reeds (fue, sho, and hichiriki), the yamato-koto, and the "three drums" (taiko, kakko, and shōko). Shinto: Shinto is a Japanese religion that connects modern Japan with its past. East Asian Shintoism. [107] Susanoo was then banished to earth, where he married and had children. [340] A common ritual, the hatsumiyamairi, entails a child's first visit to a Shinto shrine. [260] The waving of the haraigushi is often followed by an additional act of purification, the shubatsu, in which the priest sprinkles water, salt, or brine over those assembled from a wooden box called the en-to-oke or magemono. [94], The origin of the kami and of Japan itself are recounted in two eighth-century texts, Kojiki and Nihon Shoki,[95] although the accounts they provide differ in part. They are compilations of the oral tradition of ancient Japan. [274] During rituals, people visiting the shrine are expected to sit in the seiza style, with their legs tucked beneath their bottom. [42], The term Shinto derives from the combination of two Chinese characters: shen (神), which means kami, and dao (道), which means "way", "road" or "path". [341] A tradition holds that, if a boy he should be brought to the shrine on the thirty-second day after birth, and if a girl she should be brought on the thirty-third day. [279] They can be decorated with miniature torii and shimenawa and include amulets obtained from public shrines. Nor does it provide a moral code as most other religions do. [152] Many shrines have a unique rubber-stamp seal which visitors can get printed into their sutanpu bukku or stamp book, demonstrating the different shrines they have visited. 153 ], although not necessarily always designed as permanent structures have usually been reserved for priests... 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